Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV); diagnosis, DO’s and DON’Ts, prevention


2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-  WHO reported that a novel virus was identified by the Chinese authorities. It is a contagious virus, can transfer from human to human. WHO advisory

The virus is associated with an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.

 

Clinical Features
Fever

Tightness of chest

Running nose

symptoms of lower respiratory illness

cough, difficulty breathing

Headache

Feeling unwell

Pneumonia

Kidney failure

Incubation period: 14 days

 

 

Mode of Transmission – Human coronaviruses most commonly spread from an infected person to others through

  • the air by coughing and sneezing
  • close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands
  • touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands
  • rarely, faecal contamination

Prevention- How to reduce risk

How to protect yourself

There are currently no vaccines available to protect you against human coronavirus infection. You may be able to reduce your risk of infection by doing the following

  • wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds
  • avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands
  • avoid close contact with people who are sick

How to protect others

If you have cold-like symptoms, you can help protect others by doing the following

  • stay home while you are sick
  • avoid close contact with others
  • cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, then throw the tissue in the trash and wash your hands
  • clean and disinfect objects and surfaces

 

Treatment

There are no specific treatments for illnesses caused by human coronaviruses. Most people with common human coronavirus illness will recover on their own. However, you can do some things to relieve your symptoms

  • take pain and fever medications (Caution: do not give Aspirin to children)
  • use a room humidifier or take a hot shower to help ease a sore throat and cough

If you are mildly sick, you should

  • drink plenty of liquids
  • stay home and rest

If you are concerned about your symptoms, you should see your healthcare provider.

 

DO’s and DON’Ts

DO’s:

  •   avoid close contact with others
  • cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • wash your hands and clean and disinfect objects and surfaces
  • take pain and fever medications (Caution: do not give Aspirin to children)
  • use a room humidifier or take a hot shower to help ease a sore throat and cough
  • drink plenty of liquids
  • stay home and rest- avoid crowded areas
  • consult a doctor

DON’Ts

-touching eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands

-Hugging, kissing, shaking hands while greeting

-spitting in public places

-taking medicines without consulting doctor

-excessive physical exercise

-disposal of used napkins or tissue papers in open areas

-touching surfaces usually used by public (railing, gates, etc)

-smoking in public places

-unnecessary testing.

 

For doctors and nurses

 CORONAVIRUS – DO’s in case of suspicion 

Obtain a detailed travel history for patients with fever and respiratory symptoms.

Is there a history of travel from Wuhan City, China on or after December 1, 2019?

Are there any Symptoms like runny nose, headache, cough, sore throat, fever and difficulty in breathing?

If yes to any or both questions above, then such patients to wear a surgical mask as soon as they are identified.

Healthcare professionals including doctors, nurses and others to conduct their evaluation in a private room with the door closed, ideally an airborne infection isolation room.

Personnel entering the room should use standard precautions, contact precautions, and airborne precautions and use eye protection (goggles or a face shield).

 

Recommendations for Reporting, Testing, and Specimen Collection

Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing Clinical Specimens from Patients Under Investigation (PUIs) for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

Healthcare providers should immediately notify both infection control personnel and administration at their healthcare facility and their local or state health department in the event of a PUI for 2019-nCoV.

To increase the likelihood of detecting 2019-nCoV infection, collection of three specimen types, lower respiratory, upper respiratory and serum specimens for testing is recommended. Additional specimen types (e.g., stool, urine) may be collected and stored. Specimens should be collected as soon as possible once a PUI is identified regardless of time of symptom onset.

For biosafety reasons, it is not recommended to perform virus isolation in cell culture or initial characterization of viral agents recovered in cultures of specimens from a PUI for 2019-nCoV.

For further details on Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing and Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines refer – Information for Laboratories (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/guidance-laboratories.html) This page includes interim guidance for laboratory professionals working with specimens from patients under investigation for human infections with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV).

 

Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients Under Investigation

Airborne infection isolation

For additional infection control guidance you can visit CDC’s Infection Control webpage.

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21 occupational risk to doctor and nurses

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