One of the large, earliest and meaningful medical traditions were developed in Ancient Egypt. Herodotus described the Egyptians as one of healthiest people because of possessing the notable public health system. He found the practice of medicine very specialized. Although Egyptian medicine, to a considerable extent, dealt with the supernatural, it eventually developed into more practical use in the various fields of medicine.
Medical information in the Edwin Smith Papyrus may date to a time as early as 3000 BC. Imhotep in the 3rd dynasty may be founder of ancient Egyptian medicine and with being the original author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, detailing cures, ailments and anatomical observations. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is regarded as a copy of several earlier works and was written in 1600 BC, contains earliest recorded reference to brain. It is an ancient textbook on surgery almost completely devoid of magical thinking and describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments.
The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus treats women’s complaints, including problems with conception. Dating to 1800 BCE, it is the oldest surviving medical text of any kind.
Medical institutions, referred to as Houses of Life are known to have been established in ancient Egypt as early as 2200 BC.
Ancient Egypt also had one earliest known physician Hesy- Ra . He was Chief of Dentists and Physicians for King Djoser in the 27th century BCE. Also, the earliest known woman physician, Peseshet, practiced in Ancient Egypt at the time of the 4th dynasty . Her title was Lady Overseer of the Lady Physicians. In addition to her supervisory role, Peseshet trained midwives at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais.
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