Early civilizations Egypt: ancient Egyptian medicine

One of  the large, earliest and meaningful medical traditions were developed in Ancient Egypt.  Herodotus described the Egyptians as one of healthiest people because of possessing the notable public health system.  He found the practice of medicine very specialized. Although Egyptian medicine, to a considerable extent, dealt with the supernatural, it eventually developed into more practical use in the various  fields  of medicine.

Medical information in the Edwin Smith Papyrus may date to a time as early as 3000 BC. Imhotep  in the 3rd dynasty may be founder of ancient Egyptian medicine and with being the original author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, detailing cures, ailments and anatomical observations. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is regarded as a copy of several earlier works and was written in 1600 BC, contains earliest recorded reference to brain. It is an ancient textbook on surgery almost completely devoid of magical thinking and describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments.

The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus treats women’s complaints, including problems with conception. Dating to 1800 BCE, it is the oldest surviving medical text of any kind.

Medical institutions, referred to as Houses of Life are known to have been established in ancient Egypt as early as 2200 BC.

Ancient Egypt also had one earliest known physician Hesy- Ra . He was Chief of Dentists and Physicians for King Djoser in the 27th century BCE. Also, the earliest known woman physician,  Peseshet, practiced in Ancient Egypt  at the time of the 4th dynasty . Her title was Lady Overseer of the Lady Physicians. In addition to her supervisory role, Peseshet trained midwives at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais.



Link    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_medicine


Evolution of medical science


The   practice of medicine  by trained professionals has been ever evolving  in its approach to   illness and disease, from ancient times to the present.

Early medical traditions evolved in  Babylon, China, Egypt, and India. The Greeks  pioneered the art of   medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath, still taken  by doctors up to today, was written in Greece in the 5th century BCE. In the medieval age, advances in  surgical practices were made and  systematized in Rogerius’s,  The Practice of Surgery. Systematic training of physicians was  started in universities around the years 1220 in Italy.  During the Renaissance,  significant advances were made with invention of microscope and  better understanding of anatomy.   The germ theory of disease in the 19th century led to cures for many infectious diseases. Military doctors advanced the methods of trauma treatment and surgery. Systematic sanitary measures and public health measures  made significant improvement . Advanced research centers opened in the early 20th century, often connected with major hospitals.  Discovery of antibiotics  was major invention in the mid-20th century.. These advancements, along with developments in chemistry, genetics, and lab technology such as the X-ray, was recognized as   modern medicine. Medicine was heavily professionalized in the 20th century, and new careers opened to women as nurses from the 1870s.


Link    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_medicine


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