Mental Health- Depression


Mental health conditions are increasing worldwide. Mainly because of demographic changes, there has been a 13% rise in mental health conditions and substance use disorders in the last decade (to 2017). Mental health conditions now cause 1 in 5 years lived with disability. Around 20% of the world’s children and adolescents have a mental health condition, with suicide the second leading cause of death among 15-29-year-olds. Approximately one in five people in post-conflict settings have a mental health condition.

Mental health conditions can have a substantial effect on all areas of life, such as school or work performance, relationships with family and friends and ability to participate in the community. Two of the most common mental health conditions, depression and anxiety, cost the global economy US$ 1 trillion each year.

Despite these figures, the global median of government health expenditure that goes to mental health is less than 2%. 

Depression

Depression

Key facts

  • Depression is a common mental disorder. Globally, it is estimated that 5% of adults suffer from depression.
  • Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease.
  • More women are affected by depression than men.
  • Depression can lead to suicide.
  • There is effective treatment for mild, moderate, and severe depression.

Overview

Depression is a common illness worldwide, with an estimated 3.8% of the population affected, including 5.0% among adults and 5.7% among adults older than 60 years (1). Approximately 280 million people in the world have depression (1). Depression is different from usual mood fluctuations and short-lived emotional responses to challenges in everyday life. Especially when recurrent and with moderate or severe intensity, depression may become a serious health condition. It can cause the affected person to suffer greatly and function poorly at work, at school and in the family. At its worst, depression can lead to suicide. Over 700 000 people die due to suicide every year. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death in 15-29-year-olds.

Although there are known, effective treatments for mental disorders, more than 75% of people in low- and middle-income countries receive no treatment (2).  Barriers to effective care include a lack of resources, lack of trained health-care providers and social stigma associated with mental disorders. In countries of all income levels, people who experience depression are often not correctly diagnosed, and others who do not have the disorder are too often misdiagnosed and prescribed antidepressants.

Symptoms and patterns

During a depressive episode, the person experiences depressed mood (feeling sad, irritable, empty) or a loss of pleasure or interest in activities, for most of the day, nearly every day, for at least two weeks. Several other symptoms are also present, which may include poor concentration, feelings of excessive guilt or low self-worth, hopelessness about the future, thoughts about dying or suicide, disrupted sleep, changes in appetite or weight, and feeling especially tired or low in energy. 

In some cultural contexts, some people may express their mood changes more readily in the form of bodily symptoms (e.g. pain, fatigue, weakness).  Yet, these physical symptoms are not due to another medical condition. 

During a depressive episode, the person experiences significant difficulty in personal, family, social, educational, occupational, and/or other important areas of functioning. 

A depressive episode can be categorised as mild, moderate, or severe depending on the number and severity of symptoms, as well as the impact on the individual’s functioning. 

There are different patterns of mood disorders including:

  • single episode depressive disorder, meaning the person’s first and only episode);
  • recurrent depressive disorder, meaning the person has a history of at least two depressive episodes; and
  • bipolar disorder, meaning that depressive episodes alternate with periods of manic symptoms, which include euphoria or irritability, increased activity or energy, and other symptoms such as increased talkativeness, racing thoughts, increased self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, distractibility, and impulsive reckless behaviour.  

Contributing factors and prevention

Depression results from a complex interaction of social, psychological, and biological factors. People who have gone through adverse life events (unemployment, bereavement, traumatic events) are more likely to develop depression. Depression can, in turn, lead to more stress and dysfunction and worsen the affected person’s life situation and the depression itself.

There are interrelationships between depression and physical health. For example, cardiovascular disease can lead to depression and vice versa.

Prevention programmes have been shown to reduce depression. Effective community approaches to prevent depression include school-based programmes to enhance a pattern of positive coping in children and adolescents. Interventions for parents of children with behavioural problems may reduce parental depressive symptoms and improve outcomes for their children. Exercise programmes for older persons can also be effective in depression prevention.

Diagnosis and treatment

There are effective treatments for depression. 

Depending on the severity and pattern of depressive episodes over time, health-care providers may offer psychological treatments such as behavioural activation, cognitive behavioural therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy, and/or antidepressant medication such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Different medications are used for bipolar disorder. Health-care providers should keep in mind the possible adverse effects associated with antidepressant medication, the ability to deliver either intervention (in terms of expertise, and/or treatment availability), and individual preferences. Different psychological treatment formats for consideration include individual and/or group face-to-face psychological treatments delivered by professionals and supervised lay therapists. Antidepressants are not the first line of treatment for mild depression. They should not be used for treating depression in children and are not the first line of treatment in adolescents, among whom they should be used with extra caution.

WHO response

WHO’s Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2030 highlights the steps required to provide appropriate interventions for people with mental disorders including depression. 

Depression is one of the priority conditions covered by WHO’s Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). The Programme aims to help countries increase services for people with mental, neurological and substance use disorders through care provided by health workers who are not specialists in mental health. 

WHO has developed brief psychological intervention manuals for depression that may be delivered by lay workers to individuals and groups. An example is the Problem Management Plus manual, which describes the use of behavioural activation, stress management, problem solving treatment and strengthening social support. Moreover, the Group Interpersonal Therapy for Depression manual describes group treatment of depression. Finally, the Thinking Healthy manual covers the use of cognitive-behavioural therapy for perinatal depression.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes        

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons              

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

NAIROBI FLY DERMATITIS- Spreading at Sikkim-Paederus dermatitis


Nairobi fly is a common name for two species of rove beetle also called Dragon Bug.

Paederus dermatitis is a peculiar, irritant contact dermatitis characterized by a sudden onset of erythematobullous lesions on exposed areas of the body. The disease is provoked by an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. This beetle does not bite or sting, but accidental brushing against or crushing the beetle over the skin provokes the release of its coelomic fluid, which contains paederin, a potent vesicant agent.

 The fluid contains paederin, a potent vesicant agent. If not immediately washed off, the chemical leads to a linear dermatitis composed of erythematobullous lesions.

NAIROBI FLY DERMATITIS: AROUND 8-10 CASES REPORTED DAILY AT RANGPO PHC

 

NAIROBI FLY DERMATITIS: AROUND 8-10 CASES REPORTED DAILY AT RANGPO PHC

GANGTOK,: Blister Bee Dermatitis, also known as Nairobi Fly Dermatitis, has been spreading rapidly at different places in Sikkim with Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Duga, IBM and Rangpo being the worst-affected.

Nairobi fly is a common name for two species of rove beetle in the genus Paederus, native to East Africa. The beetle contains a toxic hemolymph known as pederin which can cause chemical burns if it comes into contact with skin. Because of these burns, the Nairobi fly is sometimes referred to as a dragon bug. The symptoms include skin inflammation, rashes and blisters in severe cases.

The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration.

A local guardian of a student at SMIT stated that, “Nairobi fly is reportedly spreading in and around SMIT campus like wildfire and has already infected almost hundred students with its poisonous acid among which one had to undergo a minor hand operation.”

Rangpo PHC, the main health centre in the region, has been receiving around 8-10 cases daily.

“We have getting around 8 to10 cases per day from Duga, Tamatar, IBM and Rangpo areas. I learnt about the cases at SMIT on June 30. I stay in SMIT itself in the staff quarter and almost 60 students from SMIT boys’ hostel have been infected by Nairobi Fly Dermatitis,” sadi Dr. Sandhya Rai.

“The beetle breeds on mushy areas and SMIT boys’ hostel is located along the riverside and maybe the cases are more there because the Nairobi fly breeds on mushy and humid areas,” she added.

Dr. Rai maintained that the infection is not fatal and treatable with oral treatments. She further informed that the beetle, like any other insect and bug, is attracted to light and urged people to use dim lights at night. The beetle does not bite or sting, but the burn is caused when the beetle is slightly or completely squashed, she added.

“The preventive measures include typical anti-vector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis and spraying pesticides from time to time.”

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes        

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons     

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

Typhoid bacteria (Salmonella) contamination found in world’s largest chocolate-making plant


After several countries reported cases of salmonellosis following the consumption of Kinder brand of chocolates, the company has decided to recall its products. Contamination with salmonella was found following the consumption of the Belgium-based Kinder brand of chocolate, the World Health Organization (WHO) informed that the brand has decided to recall its candy.

   The incident has brought forth the need for attention and strict regulation, which is required to regulate hundreds and thousands of ready to eat products, fast foods, especially chocolates. They may carry deadly infections, if procedure to manufacture them is not up to mark and if the authorities are lax to check them periodically.

    The major development came after 150 suspected cases of salmonellosis were found in Belgium (26), France (25), Germany (10), Ireland (15), Luxembourg (1), the Netherlands (2), Norway (1), Spain (1), Sweden (4), the United Kingdom (65) and the United States of America (1). According to the statement released by WHO on Wednesday, children under the age of 10 years have been most affected. Although nine children are still in hospital, no fatalities were reported until now.

“The risk of spread in the WHO European region and globally is assessed as moderate until the information is available on the full recall of the products,” the UN agency said in a statement. According to WHO, salmonella bacteria matching the current human cases of infection were found last December and January in the buttermilk tanks at a factory run by chocolate makers Ferrero, in the Belgian city of Arlon.

In a  chocolate-making plant in Belgium  salmonella bacteria have been found. Chocolate plant after receiving the news of bacteria in the plant (Chocolate Plant) production has been stopped. The sale of products sent for sale from the plant has been banned. All dealers associated with the plant have been prohibited from selling the product. Belgium ( BelgiumThe plant in which bacteria have been found is the world’s largest chocolate-making plant. Even before this salmonella bacteria (salmonella bacteria) has been confirmed.

The company also supplies products to Nestle.

The plant of the world’s largest company, Barry Callebaut, is located in the city of Vieze, Belgium. This company makes liquid chocolate, which supplies its products to many big brands. Company Liquid Chocolate Nestle ( Nestlé), Unilever (Unilever), Harshi (hershey), supplies to large companies such as Mondelez. Even before this, information about the presence of Salmonella bacteria in the products of other companies has come to the fore. This was confirmed in the product of Ferrero company based in Arlon, South Belgium.

A company spokesperson said that the sale of products made after June 25 has been banned. However, the company’s spokesperson also said that most of the products in which it has been confirmed are present in the company itself. After getting the bacteria, the company has informed the Food Safety Agency of Belgium. On behalf of the company, it has been said that the Food Safety Agency is investigating the matter. It was said on behalf of the company that the investigation process may take time, due to which there is a possibility of a decrease of 2.6 percent in the company’s stock. After the completion of the investigation, all the production lines of the company can be started for production.

Salmonella bacteria give rise to deadly diseases like typhoid and salmonellosis. Apart from this, this bacteria affects the intestine of humans and animals. This bacteria is spread by eating contaminated food or food items. Salmonella bacteria are also spread in humans by eating dirt, eggs, raw meat. Young children and the elderly are at greater risk from this bacteria.

It has been said in a media report that the effect of salmonella infection starts showing in 6 to 36 hours. Due to this, the infected person may have problems like abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, diarrhea. A research report states that there are about 40,000 infected cases of Salmonella bacteria in the United States every year.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

How to Prevent/ Manage Mountain Sickness or Altitude Sickness?


If you’ve ever hiked up a mountain and felt yourself getting nauseous or lightheaded, you may have experienced altitude sickness, also called mountain sickness. This condition happens when you travel to a high altitude (elevation) too quickly.

It doesn’t happen only to hikers. Just visiting a high-altitude location can cause problems for some. Symptoms happen when your body tries to adjust to the lower air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes.

  Altitude sickness symptoms can range from uncomfortable to life-threatening. But with some planning and precautions, you can avoid this condition. The best way to prevent it is to move at a slower pace and let your body adjust. If you notice symptoms at high elevation, don’t push yourself to go farther. Get back down to a lower elevation and let your body adjust before moving up, slowly and carefully.

Who is at risk for altitude sickness?

Anyone can get altitude sickness. Your age, sex and general health don’t seem to affect your risk. You may be at higher risk if you:

  • Have a lung or heart condition: Your healthcare provider may recommend avoiding high altitudes if possible.
  • Are pregnant: Talk to you provider before traveling to a high-altitude location.
  • Live at low elevation: Since your body isn’t used to higher altitudes, you have a greater risk for symptoms. If you’re planning a trip to a high-altitude location, be aware of the symptoms of altitude sickness and how to treat it.
  • Previously had altitude sickness: Talk to your provider about prevention and treatment before your next trip.

What is considered a “high elevation” in terms of getting altitude sickness?

Climbing to these elevations can bring on symptoms of altitude sickness:

  • High altitude: 8,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level.
  • Very high altitude: 12,000 to 18,000 feet.
  • Extremely high altitude: 18,000+ feet.

The summit of Mount Everest is over 29,000 feet.

How common is altitude sickness?

Altitude sickness may occur in up to half of people who climb to elevations above 8,000 feet.

What are the different forms of altitude sickness?

Most people who get altitude sickness get AMS, acute mountain sickness. Higher than 10,000 feet, 75% of people will get mild symptoms . There are three categories of AMS:

  • Mild AMS: Symptoms, such as mild headache and fatigue, don’t interfere with your normal activity. Symptoms improve after a few days as your body acclimates. You can likely stay at your current elevation as your body adjusts.
  • Moderate AMS: Symptoms start to interfere with your activities. You may experience severe headache, nausea and difficulty with coordination. You’ll need to descend to start to feel better.
  • Severe AMS: You may feel short of breath, even at rest. It can be difficult to walk. You need to descend immediately to a lower altitude and seek medical care.

Two severe forms of altitude illness occur less frequently but are more serious. Both can be life-threatening. You need to descend immediately and receive medical treatment for:

  • HAPE (High-altitude pulmonary edema): HAPE produces excess fluid on the lungs, causing breathlessness, even when resting. You feel very fatigued and weak and may feel like you’re suffocating.
  • HACE (High-altitude cerebral edema): HACE involves excess fluid on the brain, causing brain swelling. You may experience confusion, lack of coordination and possibly violent behaviour

SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES

What causes altitude sickness?

Altitude sickness results from a rapid change in air pressure and air oxygen levels at higher elevations. You may have symptoms if you travel to a high elevation without giving your body time to adjust to less oxygen. Even if you’re physically fit, you can still experience altitude sickness.

In addition, high altitude and lower air pressure can lead to fluid leaking from blood vessels. Researchers don’t understand exactly why this happens. This leakage causes fluid to build up in your lungs and brain. Ignoring moderate or severe symptoms can lead to a life-threatening situation. What are the symptoms of altitude

Symptoms of altitude sickness?

You’ll likely feel nauseous and lightheaded. You may vomit and have a headache. Different levels of altitude sickness have different symptoms:

Symptoms of mild, short-term altitude sickness usually begin 12 to 24 hours after arriving at high altitude. They lessen in a day or two as your body adjusts. These symptoms include:

  • Dizziness.
  • Fatigue and loss of energy.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Sleep problems.

Symptoms of moderate altitude sickness are more intense and worsen instead of improve over time:

  • Worsening fatigue, weakness and shortness of breath.
  • Coordination problems and difficulty walking.
  • Severe headache, nausea and vomiting.
  • Chest tightness or congestion.
  • Difficulty doing regular activities, though you may still be able to walk independently.

Severe altitude sickness is an emergency. The symptoms are similar to moderate AMS, but more severe and intense. If you start experiencing these symptoms, you must be taken to a lower altitude immediately for medical care:

  • Shortness of breath, even when resting.
  • Inability to walk.
  • Confusion.
  • Fluid buildup in the lungs or brain.

HAPE, when fluid builds up in the lungs, prevents oxygen from moving around your body. You need medical treatment for HAPE. Symptoms include:

  • Cyanosis, when your skin, nails or whites of your eyes start to turn blue.
  • Confusion and irrational behavior.
  • Shortness of breath even when resting.
  • Tightness in the chest.
  • Extreme fatigue and weakness.
  • Feeling like you’re suffocating at night.
  • Persistent cough, bringing up white, watery fluid.

HACE happens when the brain tissue starts to swell from the leaking fluid. You need medical treatment for HACE. Symptoms include:

  • Headache
  • Loss of coordination.
  • Weakness.
  • Disorientation, memory loss, hallucinations.
  • Psychotic behavior.
  • Coma.

DIAGNOSIS AND TESTS

How is altitude sickness diagnosed?

If you get a headache and at least one other symptom with 24 to 48 hours of moving to a higher elevation, it’s most likely altitude sickness. If you’re climbing, a more experienced climber may recognize symptoms of altitude sickness and guide you to get help.

If you have severe altitude sickness, a healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms, activities and location. The provider may perform a physical exam, including listening to your chest.

Will I need tests to diagnose altitude sickness?

You may need a chest X-ray to see if there is any fluid in your chest. In severe cases, your healthcare provider may order a brain MRI or CT scan to check for fluid in the brain.

MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT

How is altitude sickness treated?

The main treatment for altitude sickness is to move to a lower elevation as quickly

and safely as possible. At the very least, do not go higher. If symptoms are mild, staying at your current elevation for a few days might be enough to improve the symptoms.

Other treatments depend on how severe the symptoms are:

  • Mild altitude sickness: Over-the-counter medicines can relieve headaches. Other symptoms will improve once your body adjusts or you move to a lower altitude.
  • Moderate altitude sickness: Symptoms should improve within 24 hours once you are 1,000 to 2,000 feet lower than you were. Within three days, you should feel completely better.
  • Severe altitude sickness, HACE and HAPE: If you have severe symptoms, you must be taken immediately to an elevation that’s no higher than 4,000 feet. Get to a healthcare provider as soon as possible. You may need hospitalization.

What treatments are available for severe altitude sickness?

Treatments depend on your symptoms:

  • For fluid in the brain (HACE), you may need dexamethasone, a steroid that helps reduce swelling in the brain. Dexamethasone is sometimes prescribed as a preventive medication.
  • For fluid in the lungs (HAPE), you may need oxygen, medication, a lung inhaler or, in severe cases, a respirator.
  • If you need more oxygen, a provider might prescribe acetazolamide, which increases your breathing rate, so you take in more oxygen. The medicine helps your body adjust faster to the higher elevation and reduces symptoms of altitude sickness.

PREVENTION

How can altitude sickness be prevented?

The best way to prevent altitude sickness is to go slow — called acclimatization. This process allows your body time to adjust to the change in oxygen levels. Take your time when traveling up. For instance, spend a day at a point midway up before continuing to ascend.

You can also talk to your healthcare provider about taking acetazolamide before your trip. Taking it 24 hours before traveling to a high altitude and continuing for five days can help prevent altitude sickness. Dexamethasone can also be used preventively, but it can have serious side effects. Talk to your provider before your trip.

OUTLOOK / PROGNOSIS

What’s the outlook for someone with altitude sickness?

Most people who get altitude sickness get the mild form. Once you return to a lower elevation (or stay at your current elevation without climbing higher), symptoms improve.

Are there long-term effects of altitude sickness?

If you take care and move to a lower elevation when you feel symptoms, altitude sickness has no long-term negative effects. You’ll recover within a few days. Once you feel better, you can continue to travel to higher elevations, as long as you do so slowly and carefully.

Can altitude sickness be fatal?

In rare cases, altitude sickness can be life-threatening. If you develop HAPE or HACE, you are at risk for complications such as coma or even death. Get treatment as soon as possible to reduce your risk.

Can altitude sickness be cured?

Altitude sickness is temporary. Once you return to a lower altitude, you’ll feel better. When you begin your ascent again (or on your next climb), make sure to travel slowly to let your body acclimate.

If I’m planning a hike to a very high elevation, how can I hike safely without getting altitude sickness?

These steps can help your body acclimate:

  • Walk up: Start below 10,000 feet and walk to a high altitude instead of driving or flying. If you drive or fly to an elevation higher than 10,000 feet, stay at your first stop for at least 24 hours before going higher.
  • Go slow: Once above 10,000 feet, don’t increase your altitude more than 1,000 feet a day.
  • Rest: Build a rest day into your schedule for every 3,000 feet you climb.
  • “Climb high and sleep low”: If you climb more than 1,000 feet in a day, come down to sleep at a lower altitude.
  • Know your body: Recognize the signs and symptoms of altitude sickness. Move to a lower altitude (or avoid climbing higher) if you notice any symptoms.
  • Stay hydrated: Drink 3-4 quarts of water per day.
  • Avoid alcohol: Alcohol can dehydrate your body. It also has stronger effects at higher elevations, which can impair judgment.
  • Eat carbs: Eat a diet that’s more than 70% carbohydrates.
  • Know the “don’ts”: Avoid tobacco and depressant drugs, such as sleeping pills and tranquilizers.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

Osteoarthritis: Painful Joints in Old age- Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment


This serious, painful condition is the most common form of arthritis and can affect any joint.

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that can affect the many tissues of the joint. It is by far the most common form of arthritis, affecting more than 32.5 million adults in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Historically, osteoarthritis (OA) was known as a “wear and tear” condition, generally associated with aging. But we know now that it is a disease of the entire joint, including bone, cartilage, ligaments, fat and the tissues lining the joint (the synovium). Osteoarthritis can degrade cartilage, change bone shape and cause inflammation, resulting in pain, stiffness and loss of mobility.

OA can affect any joint, but typically affects hands, knees, hips, lower back and neck. Its signs and symptoms typically show up more often in individuals over age 50, but OA can affect much younger people, too, especially those who have had a prior joint injury, such as a torn ACL or meniscus. It typically develops slowly over time, but after such an injury, it can develop much more rapidly, within just a few years. OA is not an inevitable aging disease; some people never develop it.

There is no cure for OA, but there are ways to manage OA to minimize pain, continue physical activities, maintain a good quality of life and remain mobile.

Causes

Causes

Factors that may contribute to the development of OA include 

  • Age. The risk of developing OA increases with age and symptoms generally, but not always, appear in people over 50. 
  • Joint injury. A bone fracture or cartilage or ligament tear can lead to OA, sometimes more quickly than in cases where there is not an obvious injury.
  • Overuse. Using the same joints over and over in a job or sport can result in OA.. Excess weight adds stress and pressure on a joint, plus fats cells promote inflammation.
  • Musculoskeletal abnormalities. Misalignment of bone or joint structures can contribute to faster development of OA.
  • Obesity
  • Weak muscles. If muscles don’t provide adequate joint support, poor alignment can result, which can lead to OA.
  • Genetics. People with family members who have OA are more likely to develop it.
  • Gender. Women are more likely to develop OA than men.
  • Environmental Factors. Modifiable environmental risk factors include things like someone’s occupation, level of physical activity, quadriceps strength, presence or absence of prior joint injury, obesity, diet, sex hormones, and bone density.

Symptoms

Symptoms tend to build over time rather than show up suddenly. They include

  • Pain or aching in a joint during activity, after long activity or at the end of the day.
  • Joint stiffness usually occurs first thing in the morning or after resting.
  • Limited range of motion that may go away after movement.
  • Clicking or popping sound when a joint bends.
  • Swelling around a joint.
  • Muscle weakness around the joint.
  • Joint instability or buckling (as when a knee gives out).

OA may affect different parts of the body in different ways.

  • Hips. Pain in the groin area or buttocks and sometimes on the inside of the knee or thigh.
  • Knees. A “grating” or “scraping” feeling when moving the knee. 
  • Fingers. Bony growths (spurs) at the edge of joints can cause fingers to become swollen, tender and red, sometimes with pain at the base of the thumb.
  • Feet. Pain and tenderness in the big toe, with possible swelling in the ankles or toes.

Potential Consequences

Pain, reduced mobility, side effects from medications and other factors associated with osteoarthritis can lead to health complications that are not caused by the disease itself.

Obesity, Diabetes and Heart Disease

Painful joints, especially in the feet, ankles, knees, hip or back, make it harder to exercise. But physical activity is not only key to managing OA symptoms; it also can help prevent weight gain, which can lead to obesity. Being overweight or obese can lead to the development of high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure. 

Falls

Research indicates people with OA experience more fall and risk of fracture than those without OA. Although study results vary, some research shows they may have up to 30% more falls and have a 20% greater risk of fracture. Having OA can decrease function, weaken muscles, affect overall balance, and make falls more likely, especially among those with OA in knees or hips. Side effects from pain medications, such as dizziness, can also contribute to falls.

Diagnosis

Medical history, a physical examination and lab test help to make up the OA diagnosis. 

A primary care doctor may be the first person you talk to about joint pain. The doctor will review your medical history, symptoms, how the pain affects activities, as well as your medical problems and medication use. He or she will also look at and move your joints, and may order imaging. These tests help to make the diagnosis:

  • Joint aspiration. After numbing the area, a needle is inserted into the joint to pull out fluid. This test will look for infection or crystals in the fluid to help rule out other medical conditions or other forms of arthritis.
  • X-ray. X-rays can show joint or bone damage or changes related to osteoarthritis.
  • MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives a better view of cartilage and other parts of the joint.

Treatment

There is no cure for OA, but medication, assistive devices and other therapies that don’t involve drugs can help to ease pain. As a last resort, a damaged joint may be surgically fused or replaced with one made of a combination of metal, plastic and/or ceramic. 

Medications

Pain and anti-inflammatorymedicines for osteoarthritis are available as pills, syrups, patches, gels, creams or injectable. They include:  

  • Analgesics. These are pain relievers and include acetaminophen and opioids. Acetaminophen is available over the counter (OTC); opioids must be prescribed by a doctor.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These are the most commonly used drugs to ease inflammation and pain. They include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen and celecoxib, available either OTC or by prescription. The OTC versions help with pain but not inflammation.
  • Counterirritants. These OTC products contain ingredients like capsaicin, menthol, lidocaine that irritate nerve endings, so the painful area feels cold, warm or itchy to take focus away from the actual pain. 
  • Corticosteroids. These prescription anti-inflammatory medicines work in a similar way to a hormone called cortisol. The medicine is taken by mouth or injected into the joint at a doctor’s office.
  • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Available from a doctor by injection, this product is intended to help ease pain and inflammation. This is not approved by the Food & Drug Administration and evidence is still emerging, so discuss it with your doctor before trying it.
  • Other drugs. The antidepressant duloxetine (Cymbalta) and the anti-seizure pregabalin (Lyrica) are oral medicines that are FDA-approved to treat OA pain.

Nondrug Therapies

Exercise

Movement is an essential part of an OA treatment plan. Getting 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous exercise per week should be the goal, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A good exercise program to fight OA pain and stiffness has four parts:

  • Strengthening exercises build muscles around painful joints and helps to ease the stress on them. 
  • Range-of-motion exercise or stretching helps to reduce stiffness and keep joints moving.
  • Aerobic or cardio exercises help improve stamina and energy levels and reduce excess weight.
  • Balance exercises help strengthen small muscles around the knees and ankles and help prevent falls.

Talk to a doctor or physical therapist before starting a new exercise program.

Weight Loss

Excess weight puts additional force and stress on weight-bearing joints, including the hips, knees, ankles, feet and back, and fat cells promote inflammation.  Losing extra weight helps reduce pain and slow joint damage. Every pound of weight lost removes four pounds of pressure on lower-body joints.

Physical therapy and Assistive therapy
Physical therapists, occupational therapists and chiropractors can provide:

  • Specific exercises to help stabilize your joints and ease pain.
  • Information about natural treatments and products that can ease pain.
  • Instruction to make movement easier and to protect joints. 
  • Braces, shoe inserts or other assistive devices.

Surgery

Joint surgery can improve pain and function. Joint replacement surgery replaces damaged joints to restore mobility and relieve pain. Hips and knees are the joints most commonly replaced. An orthopedic surgeon can determine the best procedure based on how badly damaged the joint is.

Self-Care

Practicing these habits can slow down OA, keep you healthier overall and delay surgery as long as possible. It is important to pursue a number of different self-care approaches simultaneously. They are listed below.

Maintain a Healthy Weight

Excess weight worsens OA. Combine healthy eating with regular exercise to maintain a healthy weight.

Control Blood Sugar

Many people have diabetes and OA. Having high glucose levels can make cartilage stiffer and more likely to break down. Having diabetes causes inflammation, which also weakens cartilage.

Maintain Range of Motion

Movement is medicine for joints. Make a habit of putting your joints through their full range of motion, but only up to the point where it doesn’t cause more pain. Gentle stretching, raising and lowering legs from a standing or seated position, daily walks and hobbies such as gardening can help. But listen to your body and never push too hard.

Protect Joints

Make sure to warm up and cool down when doing exercise. If you play sports, protects joints with the right gear. Use your largest, strongest joints for lifting, pushing, pulling and carrying. Watch your step to prevent falls. Balance rest and activity throughout the day.  

Relax

Find ways to reduce or avoid stress through meditation, listening to music, connecting with friends and family, doing fun activities, and finding ways to relax and recharge.

Choose a Healthy Lifestyle

Eating healthy food, balanced nutrition, not smoking, drinking in moderation and getting good sleep will help you to feel your best.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Painful Joints in Young- Causes, Symptoms, Treatment


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes joint inflammation and pain. It happens when the immune system doesn’t work properly and attacks the lining of the joints, called the synovium. The disease commonly affects the hands, knees or ankles, and usually the same joint on both sides of the body, such as both hands or both knees. But sometimes RA causes problems in other parts of the body as well, such as the eyes, heart and circulatory system and/or the lungs.

For unknown reasons, more women than men get RA, and it usually develops in middle age. Having a family member with RA increases the odds of developing RA.

Causes

In a healthy person, the immune system fights invaders, such as bacteria and viruses. With an autoimmune disease like RA, the immune system mistakes the body’s cells for foreign invaders and releases inflammatory chemicals that attack those cells.  RA, it attacks the synovium, the tissue lining around a joint that produces a fluid to help the joint move smoothly. The inflamed synovium gets thicker and makes the joint area feel painful and tender and look red and swollen, and moving the joint may be difficult.

Researchers aren’t sure why people develop RA. They believe these individuals may have certain genes that are activated by a trigger in the environment, such as a virus or bacteria, physical or emotional stress or some other external factor.

Symptoms

Symptoms

In the early stages, people with RA may not see redness or swelling in the joints, but they may experience tenderness and pain.
These symptoms are clues to RA:

  • joint pain, tenderness, swelling or stiffness that lasts for six weeks or longer.
  • Morning stiffness that lasts for 30 minutes or longer.
  • More than one joint is affected.
  • Small joints (wrists, certain joints in the hands and feet) are typically affected first.
  • The same joints on both sides of the body are affected.

Many people with RA get very tired (fatigue) and some may have a low-grade fever. RA symptoms may come and go. Having a lot of inflammation and other symptoms is called a flare. A flare can last for days or months. 
 

Health Effects

  • Eyes. Dryness, pain, inflammation, redness, sensitivity to light and trouble seeing properly.
  • Mouth. Dryness and gum inflammation, irritation or infection. 
  • Skin. Rheumatoid nodules — small lumps under the skin over bony areas. 
  • Lungs. Inflammation and scarring that can lead to shortness of breath and lung disease.
  • Blood vessels. Inflammation of blood vessels that can lead to damage in the nerves, skin and other organs.
  • Blood. A lower than normal number of red blood cells. 
  • Heart. Inflammation can damage the heart muscle and the surrounding areas.
  • Painful joints also make it hard to exercise, leading to weight gain. Being overweight may make people with RA more likely to develop high cholesterol, diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure.

Diagnosis

Getting an accurate diagnosis as soon as possible is the first step to treating RA effectively. A doctor with specialized training in treating arthritis (called a rheumatologist) is the best person to make a correct diagnosis, using medical history, a physical examination and lab tests.

Medical history. The doctor will ask about joint symptoms (pain, tenderness, stiffness, difficulty moving), when they started, if they come and go, how severe they are, what actions make them better or worse and whether family members have RA or another autoimmune disease. 
Physical examination.  The doctor will look for joint tenderness, swelling, warmth and painful or limited movement, bumps under the skin or a low-grade fever. 
Blood tests- The blood tests look for inflammation and blood proteins (antibodies) that are linked to RA:

  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, or “sed rate”) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are markers for inflammation. A high ESR or CRP combined with other clues to RA helps make the diagnosis. 
  • Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an antibody found (eventually) in about 80 percent of people with RA. Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) are found in 60 to 70 percent of people with RA. However, they are also found in people without RA. 

Imaging tests- RA can cause the ends of the bones within a joint to wear down (erosions). An X-ray, ultrasound, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan can look for erosions. But if they don’t show up on the first tests that could mean RA is in an early stage and hasn’t damaged bone yet. Imaging results can also show how well treatment is working.
 

Treatment

The goals of RA treatment are to:

  • Stop inflammation or reduce it to the lowest possible level (put disease in remission).
  • Relieve symptoms.
  • Prevent joint and organ damage.
  • Improve function and overall well-being.
  • Reduce long-term complications.

To meet these goals, the doctor will follow these strategies:

  • Early, aggressive treatment to reduce or stop inflammation as quickly as possible.
  • Targeting remission or another goal (called “treat-to-target”) to work toward few or no signs or symptoms of active inflammation. 
  • Tight control to keep inflammation at the lowest level possible.

Working with your doctor to ensure you get appropriate medical treatment is essential, but you can also take measures on your own to manage your RA and ease pain and fatigue. Diet, exercise, smoking cessation and mental health are all key to good health overall and controlling RA.

Healthy Eating. A balanced, nutritious diet consisting of the recommended amounts of all the food groups helps promote wellness and makes it easier to maintain a healthy weight. 

Daily movement. Even when you don’t have time to exercise, try to make movement part of your everyday routine. Use the stairs instead of taking the elevator. Park in a spot that makes you walk a bit to enter a building. Take the longer way to a meeting in your office. 

Balancing activity with rest. It’s important to try to stay physically active even during a flare, but rest is also especially important when RA is active and joints feel painful, swollen or stiff. Rest helps reduce inflammation and fatigue that can come with a flare. Taking breaks throughout the day protects joints and preserves energy.

Hot and cold treatments. Heat treatments, such as heat pads or warm baths, tend to work best for soothing stiff joints and tired muscles. Cold is best for acute pain and swollen joints. It can numb painful areas and reduce inflammation. 

Topical products. These creams, gels or stick-on patches can ease the pain in a joint or muscle. Some contain the medicine that you can get in a pill, and others use ingredients that irritate your nerves to distract from pain.

Stress Reduction and Complementary Therapies. There are different ways to relax and stop focusing on pain. They include meditation, deep breathing, and thinking about images in your mind that make you feel happy. Massage can help reduce pain, relax sore muscles and ease stress or anxiety. Acupuncture involves inserting fine needles into the body along special points to relieve pain. If you don’t like needles, acupressure uses firm pressure instead. 

Supplements. Studies show that curcumin/turmeric and omega-3 fish oil supplements may help with rheumatoid arthritis pain and morning stiffness. However, talk with a doctor before taking any supplement to discuss side effects and how it may affect other medicines you are taking.

Positive Attitude and Support System. Cultivate a network of friends, family members and co-workers who can help provide emotional support. Take time to do things that you enjoy to lift your mood, which can help relieve pain.

Disclaimer-The above article is for information purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the guidance of your doctor or other qualified health professional for any questions you may have regarding your health or a medical condition.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

How to Prevent Fall in Elderly


In a young person, usually there are specific ailments for example heart and and nervous system that can cause some one to fall down. But the older age can predispose people to fall for many factors.

Some factors that may contribute to falls include:

  • Loss of muscle mass.
  • Illnesses that impair your mental or physical functioning, such as low blood pressure or dementia.
  • Use of four or more prescription medications.
  • Poor vision.
  • Poor balance.
  • Certain diseases that affect how you walk.
  • Alcohol use.
  • Side effects of some medications, such as:
  • Sedatives or tranquilizers.
  • Sleeping pills.
  • Antidepressants.
  • Anticonvulsants.
  • Muscle relaxants.
  • Heart medicines.
  • Blood pressure pills.
  • Diuretics.

How to prevent Falls in elderly

How to prevent Falls in elderly

Falls can also be caused by factors around you that create unsafe conditions. Here are some tips to help prevent falls outdoors and when you are away from home:

  • Use a cane or walker for added stability.
  • Wear shoes that provide support and have thin nonslip soles. Avoid wearing slippers and athletic shoes with deep treads.
  • Walk on grass when sidewalks are slippery; in winter, put salt or kitty litter on icy sidewalks.
  • Stop at curbs and check their height before stepping up or down.

Some ways to help prevent falls indoors are:

  • Keep rooms free of clutter, especially on floors. Avoid running electrical cords across walking areas.
  • Use plastic or carpet runners on slippery floors.
  • Wear shoes, even when indoors, that provide support and have thin nonslip soles. Avoid wearing slippers and athletic shoes with deep treads.
  • If you have a pet, be mindful of where they are to avoid tripping over them.
  • Do not walk in socks, stockings, or slippers.
  • Be careful on highly polished floors that are slick and dangerous, especially when wet, and walk on plastic or carpet runners when possible.
  • Be sure carpets and area rugs have skid-proof backing or are tacked to the floor. Use double-stick tape to keep rugs from slipping.
  • Be sure stairs are well lit and have rails on both sides.
  • Install grab bars on bathroom walls near the tub, shower, and toilet.
  • Use a rubber bathmat or slip-proof seat in the shower or tub.
  • Improve lighting in your home. Use nightlights or keep a flashlight next to your bed in case you need to get up at night. Install ceiling fixtures or lamps that can be turned on by a switch near the room’s entrance.
  • Use a sturdy stepstool with a handrail and wide steps.
  • Add more lights in rooms.
  • Keep a cordless phone or cell phone with you so that you don’t have to rush to the phone when it rings. In addition, if you fall, you can call for help.
  • Consider having a personal emergency-response system; you can use it to call for help if you fall.

The above article is for information purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the guidance of your doctor or other qualified health professional for any questions you may have regarding your health or a medical condition.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

Osteoporosis- Weak Bones- Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment, Fall


Overview of Osteoporosis- Weak Bones

Osteoporosis is a bone disease that develops when bone mineral density and bone mass decreases, or when the quality or structure of bone changes. This can lead to a decrease in bone strength that can increase the risk of fractures (broken bones).

Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease because you typically do not have symptoms, and you may not even know you have the disease until you break a bone. Osteoporosis is the major cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and in older men. Fractures can occur in any bone but happen most often in bones of the hip, vertebrae in the spine, and wrist.

However, you can take steps to help prevent the disease and fractures by:

  • Staying physically active by participating in weight-bearing exercises such as walking.
  • Drinking alcohol in moderation.
  • Quitting smoking, or not starting if you don’t smoke.
  • Taking your medications, if prescribed, which can help prevent fractures in people who have osteoporosis.
  • Eating a nutritious diet rich in calcium and vitamin D to help maintain good bone health.

Who Gets Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis affects women and men of all races and ethnic groups. Osteoporosis can occur at any age, although the risk for developing the disease increases as you get older. For many women, the disease begins to develop  a year or two before menopause. Other factors to consider include:

  • Osteoporosis is most common in non-Hispanic white women and Asian women.
  • African American and Hispanic women have a lower risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are still at significant risk.
  • Among men, osteoporosis is more common in non-Hispanic whites.

Certain medications, such as some cancer medications and glucocorticoid steroids, may increase the risk of developing osteoporosis.

Because more women get osteoporosis than men, many men think they are not at risk for the disease. However, both older men and women from all backgrounds are at risk for osteoporosis.

Some children and teens develop a rare form of idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis. Doctors do not know the cause; however, most children recover without treatment.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is called a “silent” disease” because there are typically no symptoms until a bone is broken or one or more vertebrae collapse (fracture). Symptoms of vertebral fracture include severe back pain, loss of height, or spine malformations such as a stooped or hunched posture (kyphosis).

Bones affected by osteoporosis may become so fragile that fractures occur spontaneously or as the result of:

  • Minor falls, such as a fall from standing height that would not normally cause a break in a healthy bone.
  • Normal stresses such as bending, lifting, or even coughing.

Causes of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis occurs when too much bone mass is lost and changes occur in the structure of bone tissue. Certain risk factors may lead to the development of osteoporosis or can increase the likelihood that you will develop the disease.

Many people with osteoporosis have several risk factors, but others who develop osteoporosis may not have any specific risk factors. There are some risk factors that you cannot change, and others that you may be able to change. However, by understanding these factors, you may be able to prevent the disease and fractures.

Factors that may increase your risk for osteoporosis include:

  • Sex. Your chances of developing osteoporosis are greater if you are a woman. Women have lower peak bone mass and smaller bones than men. However, men are still at risk, especially after the age of 70.
  • Age. As you age, bone loss happens more quickly, and new bone growth is slower. Over time, your bones can weaken and your risk for osteoporosis increases.
  • Body size. Slender, thin-boned women and men are at greater risk to develop osteoporosis because they have less bone to lose compared to larger boned women and men.
  • Race. White and Asian women are at highest risk. African American and Mexican American women have a lower risk. White men are at higher risk than African American and Mexican American men.
  • Family history. Researchers are finding that your risk for osteoporosis and fractures may increase if one of your parents has a history of osteoporosis or hip fracture.
  • Changes to hormones. Low levels of certain hormones can increase your chances of developing osteoporosis. For example:
  • Low estrogen levels in women after menopause.
  • Low levels of estrogen from the abnormal absence of menstrual periods in premenopausal women due to hormone disorders or extreme levels of physical activity.
  • Low levels of testosterone in men. Men with conditions that cause low testosterone are at risk for osteoporosis. However, the gradual decrease of testosterone with aging is probably not a major reason for loss of bone.
  • Diet. Beginning in childhood and into old age, a diet low in calcium and vitamin D can increase your risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Excessive dieting or poor protein intake may increase your risk for bone loss and osteoporosis.
  • Other medical conditions. Some medical conditions that you may be able to treat or manage can increase the risk of osteoporosis, such as other endocrine and hormonal diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, certain types of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and anorexia nervosa.
  • Medications. Long-term use of certain medications may make you more likely to develop bone loss and osteoporosis, such as:
  • Glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropic hormone, which treat various conditions, such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Antiepileptic medicines, which treat seizures and other neurological disorders.
  • Cancer medications, which use hormones to treat breast and prostate cancer.
  • Proton pump inhibitors, which lower stomach acid.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which treat depression and anxiety.
  • Thiazolidinediones, which treat type II diabetes.
  • Lifestyle. A healthy lifestyle can be important for keeping bones strong. Factors that contribute to bone loss include:
  • Low levels of physical activity and prolonged periods of inactivity can contribute to an increased rate of bone loss. They also leave you in poor physical condition, which can increase your risk of falling and breaking a bone.
  • Chronic heavy drinking of alcohol  is a significant risk factor for osteoporosis.
  • Studies indicate that smoking is a risk factor for osteoporosis and fracture. Researchers are still studying if the impact of smoking on bone health is from tobacco use alone or if people who smoke have more risk factors for osteoporosis.

Diagnosis of Osteoporosis

Doctors usually diagnose osteoporosis during routine screening for the disease. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for:

  • Women over age 65.
  • Women of any age who have factors that increase the chance of developing osteoporosis.

Due to a lack of available evidence, the Task Force did not make recommendations regarding osteoporosis screening in men.

During your visit with your doctor, remember to report:

  • Any previous fractures.
  • Your lifestyle habits, including diet, exercise, alcohol use, and smoking history.
  • Current or past medical conditions and medications that could contribute to low bone mass and increased fracture risk.
  • Your family history of osteoporosis and other diseases.
  • For women, your menstrual history.

The doctor may also perform a physical exam that includes checking for:

  • Loss of height and weight.
  • Changes in posture.
  • Balance and gait (the way you walk).
  • Muscle strength, such as your ability to stand from sitting without using your arms).

In addition, your doctor may order a test that measures your bone mineral density (BMD) in a specific area of your bone, usually your spine and hip. BMD testing can be used to:

  • Diagnose osteoporosis.
  • Detect low bone density before osteoporosis develops.
  • Help predict your risk of future fractures.
  • Monitor the effectiveness of ongoing treatment for osteoporosis.

The most common test for measuring bone mineral density is dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). It is a quick, painless, and noninvasive test. DXA uses low levels of x-rays as it passes a scanner over your body while you lie on a cushioned table. The test measures the BMD of your skeleton and at various sites that are prone to fracture, such as the hip and spine. Bone density measurement by DXA at the hip and spine is generally considered the most reliable way to diagnose osteoporosis and predict fracture risk.

Some people have a peripheral DXA, which measures bone density in the wrist and heel. This type of DXA is portable and may make it easier for screening. However, the results may not help doctors predict your risk for fractures in the future or monitor the effects of your medications on the disease.  

Your doctor will compare your BMD test results to the average bone density of young, healthy people and to the average bone density of other people of your age, sex, and race. If your test results show that you have osteoporosis, or if your bone density is below a certain level and you have other risk factors for fractures, your doctor may recommend both lifestyle approaches to promote bone health and medications to lower your chance of breaking a bone.

Sometimes, your doctor may recommend a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel. This is a test that evaluates bone but does not measure BMD. If the QUS indicates that you have bone loss, you will still need a DXA test to diagnose bone loss and osteoporosis.

Treatment of Osteoporosis

The goals for treating osteoporosis are to slow or stop bone loss and to prevent fractures. Your health care provider may recommend:

  • Proper nutrition.
  • Lifestyle changes.
  • Exercise.
  • Fall prevention to help prevent fractures.
  • Medications.

People who develop osteoporosis from another condition should work with their health care provider to identify and treat the underlying cause. For example, if you take a medication that causes bone loss, your doctor may lower the dose of that medication

or switch you to another medication. If you have a disease that requires long-term glucocorticoid therapy, such as rheumatoid arthritis or chronic lung disease, you can also take certain medications approved for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis associated with aging or menopause.

Nutrition

An important part of treating osteoporosis is eating a healthy, balanced diet, which includes:

  • Plenty of fruits and vegetables.
  • An appropriate amount of calories for your age, height, and weight. Your health care provider or doctor can help you determine the amount of calories you need each day to maintain a healthy weight.
  • Foods and liquids that include calcium, vitamin D, and protein. These help minimize bone loss and maintain overall health. However, it’s important to eat a diet rich in all nutrients to help protect and maintain bone health.
Calcium and Vitamin D

Calcium and vitamin D are important nutrients for preventing osteoporosis and helping bones reach peak bone mass. If you do not take in enough calcium, the body takes it from the bones, which can lead to bone loss. This can make bones weak and thin, leading to osteoporosis.

Good sources of calcium include:

  • Low-fat dairy products.
  • Dark green leafy vegetables, such as bok choy, collards, and turnip greens.
  • Broccoli.
  • Sardines and salmon with bones.
  • Calcium-fortified foods such as soymilk, tofu, orange juice, cereals, and breads.

Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium from the intestine. It is made in the skin after exposure to sunlight. Some foods naturally contain enough vitamin D, including fatty fish, fish oils, egg yolks, and liver. Other foods that are fortified with vitamin D are a major source of the mineral, including milk and cereals.

The chart below shows how much calcium and vitamin D you need each day.

Recommended Calcium and Vitamin D Intakes
Life-stage groupCalcium mg/dayVitamin D (IU/day)
Infants 0 to 6 months200400
Infants 6 to 12 months260400
1 to 3 years old700600
4 to 8 years old1,000600
9 to 13 years old1,300600
14 to 18 years old1,300600
19 to 30 years old1,000600
31 to 50 years old1,000600
51- to 70-year-old males1,000600
51- to 70-year-old females1,200600
>70 years old1,200800
14 to 18 years old, pregnant/lactating1,300600
19 to 50 years old, pregnant/lactating1,000600

Definitions: mg = milligrams; IU = International Units

Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements, November 2018

If you have trouble getting enough calcium and vitamin D in your diet, you may need to take supplements. Talk to your health care provider about the type and amount of calcium and vitamin D supplements you should take. Your doctor may check your blood levels of vitamin D and recommend a specific amount.

Lifestyle

In addition to a healthy diet, a healthy lifestyle is important for optimizing bone health. You should:

  • Avoid secondhand smoke, and if you smoke, quit.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation, no more than one drink a day for women and no more than two drinks a day for men.
  • Visit your doctor for regular checkups and ask about any factors that may affect your bone health or increase your chance of falling, such as medications or other medical conditions.

Exercise

Exercise is an important part of an osteoporosis treatment program. Research shows that the best physical activities for bone health include strength training or resistance training. Because bone is living tissue, during childhood and adulthood, exercise can make bones stronger. However, for older adults, exercise no longer increases bone mass. Instead, regular exercise can help older adults:

  • Build muscle mass and strength and improve coordination and balance. This can help lower your chance of falling.
  • Improve daily function and delay loss of independence.

Although exercise is beneficial for people with osteoporosis, it should not put any sudden or excessive strain on your bones. If you have osteoporosis, you should avoid high-impact exercise. To help prevent injury and fractures, a physical therapist or rehabilitation medicine specialist can:

  • Recommend specific exercises to strengthen and support your back.
  • Teach you safe ways of moving and carrying out daily activities.
  • Recommend an exercise program that is tailored to your circumstances.

Exercise specialists, such as exercise physiologists, may also help you develop a safe and effective exercise program.

Medications

Your doctor may prescribe medications for osteoporosis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the following medications for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis:

Your health care provider will discuss the best option for you, taking into consideration your age, sex, general health, and the amount of bone you have lost. No matter which medications you take for osteoporosis, it is still important that you get the recommended amounts of calcium and vitamin D. Also, exercising and maintaining other aspects of a healthy lifestyle are important.

Medications can cause side effects. If you have questions about your medications, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

  • Bisphosphonates. Several bisphosphonates are approved to help preserve bone density and strength and to treat osteoporosis. This type of drug works by slowing down bone loss, which can lower the chance of fractures.
  • Calcitonin. This medication is made from a hormone from the thyroid gland and is approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who cannot take or tolerate other medications for osteoporosis.
  • Estrogen agonist/antagonist. An estrogen agonist/antagonist, also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC), are both approved to treat and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. They are not estrogen, but they have estrogen-like effects on some tissues and estrogen-blocking effects on other tissues. This action helps improve bone density, lowering the risk for some fractures.

Estrogen and hormone therapy. Estrogen and combined estrogen and progestin (hormone therapy) are approved to prevent osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women. Because of potential side effects, researchers recommend that women use hormone therapy at the lowest dose, and for the shortest time, and if ot

  • other medications are not helping. It is important to carefully consider the risks and benefits of estrogen and hormone therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis.
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analog and parathyroid hormone related-protein (PTHrP) analog. PTH is a form of human parathyroid hormone that increases bone mass and is approved for postmenopausal women and men with osteoporosis who are at high risk for fracture. PTHrP is a medication that is also a form of parathyroid hormone. It is an injection and is usually prescribed for postmenopausal women who have a history of fractures.
  • RANK ligand (RANKL) inhibitor. This is an inhibitor that helps slow down bone loss and is approved to treat osteoporosis in:
  • Postmenopausal women or men with osteoporosis who are at high risk for fracture.
  • Men who have bone loss and are being treated for prostate cancer with medications that cause bone loss.
  • Women who have bone loss and are being treated for breast cancer with medications that cause bone loss.
  • Men and women who do not respond to other types of osteoporosis treatment.
  • Sclerostin inhibitor. This is a medication that treats osteoporosis by blocking the effect of a protein, and helps the body increase new bone formation as well as slows down bone loss.

Who Treats Osteoporosis?

Health care providers who treat osteoporosis include:

  • Endocrinologists, who treat problems related to the glands and hormones.
  • Geriatricians, who specialize in caring for all aspects of health in older people.
  • Gynecologists, who specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions of the reproductive system of women.
  • Nurse educators, who specialize in helping people understand their overall condition and set up their treatment plans.
  • Occupational therapists, who teach ways to protect joints, minimize pain, perform activities of daily living, and conserve energy.
  • Orthopaedists, who specialize in the treatment of and surgery for bone and joint diseases or injuries.
  • Physiatrists (doctors specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation).
  • Physical therapists, who help to improve joint function.
  • Primary care providers, such as a family physician or internal medicine specialist.
  • Rheumatologists, who specialize in arthritis and other diseases of the bones, joints, and muscles.

Living With Osteoporosis

In addition to the treatments your doctor recommends, the following tips can help you manage and live with osteoporosis, prevent fractures, and prevent falls.

Preventing fractures is important when you have osteoporosis because fractures can cause other medical problems and take away your independence. Exercise can help prevent fractures that occur as a result of falling and improve bone strength, when your health care provider tailors a program to your individual need. If you have osteoporosis or bone loss, it is important to talk to your doctor or physical therapist before beginning any exercise program.

In addition, preventing falls helps prevent fractures. Falls increase your likelihood of fracturing a bone in the hip, wrist, spine, or other part of the skeleton. Taking steps to prevent falls both inside and outside of the house can help prevent fractures.

Some factors that may contribute to falls include:

  • Loss of muscle mass.
  • Illnesses that impair your mental or physical functioning, such as low blood pressure or dementia.
  • Use of four or more prescription medications.
  • Poor vision.
  • Poor balance.
  • Certain diseases that affect how you walk.
  • Alcohol use.
  • Side effects of some medications, such as:
  • Sedatives or tranquilizers.
  • Sleeping pills.
  • Antidepressants.
  • Anticonvulsants.
  • Muscle relaxants.
  • Heart medicines.
  • Blood pressure pills.
  • Diuretics.

If you have osteoporosis, it is important to be aware of any physical changes you may experience that affect your balance or gait and to discuss these changes with your doctor or other health care provider. It is also important to have regular checkups and tell your doctor if you have had problems with falling.

Falls can also be caused by factors around you that create unsafe conditions. Here are some tips to help prevent falls outdoors and when you are away from home:

  • Use a cane or walker for added stability.
  • Wear shoes that provide support and have thin nonslip soles. Avoid wearing slippers and athletic shoes with deep treads.
  • Walk on grass when sidewalks are slippery; in winter, put salt or kitty litter on icy sidewalks.
  • Stop at curbs and check their height before stepping up or down.

Some ways to help prevent falls indoors are:

  • Keep rooms free of clutter, especially on floors. Avoid running electrical cords across walking areas.
  • Use plastic or carpet runners on slippery floors.
  • Wear shoes, even when indoors, that provide support and have thin nonslip soles. Avoid wearing slippers and athletic shoes with deep treads.
  • If you have a pet, be mindful of where they are to avoid tripping over them.
  • Do not walk in socks, stockings, or slippers.
  • Be careful on highly polished floors that are slick and dangerous, especially when wet, and walk on plastic or carpet runners when possible.
  • Be sure carpets and area rugs have skid-proof backing or are tacked to the floor. Use double-stick tape to keep rugs from slipping.
  • Be sure stairs are well lit and have rails on both sides.
  • Install grab bars on bathroom walls near the tub, shower, and toilet.
  • Use a rubber bathmat or slip-proof seat in the shower or tub.
  • Improve lighting in your home. Use nightlights or keep a flashlight next to your bed in case you need to get up at night. Install ceiling fixtures or lamps that can be turned on by a switch near the room’s entrance.
  • Use a sturdy stepstool with a handrail and wide steps.
  • Add more lights in rooms.
  • Keep a cordless phone or cell phone with you so that you don’t have to rush to the phone when it rings. In addition, if you fall, you can call for help.
  • Consider having a personal emergency-response system; you can use it to call for help if you fall.

Other tips that can help you manage your osteoporosis include:

  • Talking with other people who have osteoporosis.
  • Reaching out to family and friends for support.
  • Learning about the disorder and treatments to help you make decisions about your care.

he above article is for information purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the guidance of your doctor or other qualified health professional for any questions you may have regarding your health or a medical condition.

Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

Thyroid gland- Hyperthyroidism & Hypothyroidism, Symptoms, Treatment


Thyroid gland  creates and produces hormones that play a role in many different systems throughout your body. When your thyroid makes either too much or too little of these important hormones, it’s called a thyroid disease. There are several different types of thyroid disease, including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

What is the thyroid?

The thyroid gland is a small organ that’s located in the front of the neck, wrapped around the windpipe (trachea). It’s shaped like a butterfly, smaller in the middle with two wide wings that extend around the side of your throat. The thyroid is a gland. You have glands throughout your body, where they create and release substances that help your body do a specific thing. Your thyroid makes hormones that help control many vital functions of your body.

When your thyroid doesn’t work properly, it can impact your entire body. If your body makes too much thyroid hormone, you can develop a condition called hyperthyroidism. If your body makes too little thyroid hormone, it’s called hypothyroidism. Both conditions are serious and need to be treated by your healthcare provider.

What does the thyroid do? Cleveland clinic

Your thyroid has an important job to do within your body — releasing and controlling thyroid hormones that control metabolism. Metabolism is a process where the food you take into your body is transformed into energy. This energy is used throughout your entire body to keep many of your body’s systems working correctly. Think of your metabolism as a generator. It takes in raw energy and uses it to power something bigger.

The thyroid controls your metabolism with a few specific hormones — T4 (thyroxine, contains four iodide atoms) and T3 (triiodothyronine, contains three iodide atoms). These two hormones are created by the thyroid and they tell the body’s cells how much energy to use. When your thyroid works properly, it will maintain the right amount of hormones to keep your metabolism working at the right rate. As the hormones are used, the thyroid creates replacements.

This is all supervised by something called the pituitary gland. Located in the center of the skull, below your brain, the pituitary gland monitors and controls the amount of thyroid hormones in your bloodstream. When the pituitary gland senses a lack of thyroid hormones or a high level of hormones in your body, it will adjust the amounts with its own hormone. This hormone is called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The TSH will be sent to the thyroid and it will tell the thyroid what needs to be done to get the body back to normal.

What is thyroid disease?

Thyroid disease is a general term for a medical condition that keeps your thyroid from making the right amount of hormones. Your thyroid typically makes hormones that keep your body functioning normally. When the thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone, your body uses energy too quickly. This is called hyperthyroidism. Using energy too quickly will do more than make you tired — it can make your heart beat faster, cause you to lose weight without trying and even make you feel nervous. On the flip-side of this, your thyroid can make too little thyroid hormone. This is called hypothyroidism. When you have too little thyroid hormone in your body, it can make you feel tired, you might gain weight and you may even be unable to tolerate cold temperatures.

These two main disorders can be caused by a variety of conditions. They can also be passed down through families (inherited).

Who is affected by thyroid disease?

Thyroid disease can affect anyone — men, women, infants, teenagers and the elderly. It can be present at birth (typically hypothyroidism) and it can develop as you age (often after menopause in women).

Thyroid disease is very common, with an estimated 20 million people in the Unites States having some type of thyroid disorder. A woman is about five to eight times more likely to be diagnosed with a thyroid condition than a man.

You may be at a higher risk of developing a thyroid disease if you:

  • Have a family history of thyroid disease.
  • Have a medical condition (these can include pernicious anemia, type 1 diabetes, primary adrenal insufficiency, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome and Turner syndrome).
  • Take a medication that’s high in iodine (amiodarone).
  • Are older than 60, especially in women.
  • Have had treatment for a past thyroid condition or cancer (thyroidectomy or radiation).

SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES

What causes thyroid disease?

The two main types of thyroid disease are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Both conditions can be caused by other diseases that impact the way the thyroid gland works.

Conditions that can cause hypothyroidism include:

  • Thyroiditis: This condition is an inflammation (swelling) of the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can lower the amount of hormones your thyroid produces.
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: A painless disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune condition where the body’s cells attack and damage the thyroid. This is an inherited condition.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis: This condition occurs in 5% to 9% of women after childbirth. It’s usually a temporary condition.
  • Iodine deficiency: Iodine is used by the thyroid to produce hormones. An iodine deficiency is an issue that affects several million people around the world..
  • A non-functioning thyroid gland: Sometimes, the thyroid gland doesn’t work correctly from birth. This affects about 1 in 4,000 newborns. If left untreated, the child could have both physical and mental issues in the future. All newborns are given a screening blood test in the hospital to check their thyroid function.

Conditions that can cause hyperthyroidism include:

  • Graves’ disease: In this condition the entire thyroid gland might be overactive and produce too much hormone. This problem is also called diffuse toxic goiter (enlarged thyroid gland).
  • Nodules: Hyperthyroidism can be caused by nodules that are overactive within the thyroid. A single nodule is called toxic autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, while a gland with several nodules is called a toxic multi-nodular goiter.
  • Thyroiditis: This disorder can be either painful or not felt at all. In thyroiditis, the thyroid releases hormones that were stored there. This can last for a few weeks or months.
  • Excessive iodine: When you have too much iodine (the mineral that is used to make thyroid hormones) in your body, the thyroid makes more thyroid hormones than it needs. Excessive iodine can be found in some medications (amiodarone, a heart medication) and cough syrups.

Is there a higher risk of developing thyroid disease if I have diabetes?

If you have diabetes, you’re at a higher risk of developing a thyroid disease than people without diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. If you already have one autoimmune disorder, you are more likely to develop another one.

For people with type 2 diabetes, the risk is lower, but still there. If you have type 2 diabetes, you’re more likely to develop a thyroid disease later in life.

Regular testing is recommended to check for thyroid issues. Those with type 1 diabetes may be tested more often — immediately after diagnosis and then every year or so — than people with type 2 diabetes. There isn’t a regular schedule for testing if you have type 2 diabetes, however your healthcare provider may suggest a schedule for testing over time.

If you have diabetes and get a positive thyroid test, there are a few things to you can do to help feel the best possible. These tips include:

  • Getting enough sleep.
  • Exercising regularly.
  • Watching your diet.
  • Taking all of your medications as directed.
  • Getting tested regularly as directed by your healthcare provider.

What common symptoms can happen with thyroid disease?

There are a variety of symptoms you could experience if you have a thyroid disease. Unfortunately, symptoms of a thyroid condition are often very similar to the signs of other medical conditions and stages of life. This can make it difficult to know if your symptoms are related to a thyroid issue or something else entirely.

For the most part, the symptoms of thyroid disease can be divided into two groups — those related to having too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) and those related to having too little thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism).

Symptoms of an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) can include:

  • Experiencing anxiety, irritability and nervousness.
  • Having trouble sleeping.
  • Losing weight.
  • Having an enlarged thyroid gland or a goiter.
  • Having muscle weakness and tremors.
  • Experiencing irregular menstrual periods or having your menstrual cycle stop.
  • Feeling sensitive to heat.
  • Having vision problems or eye irritation.

Symptoms of an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) can include:

  • Feeling tired (fatigue).
  • Gaining weight.
  • Experiencing forgetfulness.
  • Having frequent and heavy menstrual periods.
  • Having dry and coarse hair.
  • Having a hoarse voice.
  • Experiencing an intolerance to cold temperatures.

Can thyroid issues make me lose my hair?

Hair loss is a symptom of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism. If you start to experience hair loss and are concerned about it, talk to your healthcare provider.

Can thyroid issues cause seizures?

In most cases, thyroid issues don’t cause seizures. However, if you have a very severe cases of hypothyroidism that hasn’t been diagnosed or treated, your risk of developing low serum sodium goes up. This could lead to seizures.

DIAGNOSIS AND TESTS

How to do a self-exam of your thyroid.

How is thyroid disease diagnosed?

Sometimes, thyroid disease can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are easily confused with those of other conditions. You may experience similar symptoms when you are pregnant or aging and you would when developing a thyroid disease. Fortunately, there are tests that can help determine if your symptoms are being caused by a thyroid issue. These tests include:

  • Blood tests.
  • Imaging tests.
  • Physical exams.

Blood tests

One of the most definitive ways to diagnose a thyroid problem is through blood tests. Thyroid blood tests are used to tell if your thyroid gland is functioning properly by measuring the amount of thyroid hormones in your blood. These tests are done by taking blood from a vein in your arm. Thyroid blood tests are used to see if you have:

  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Hypothyroidism.

Thyroid blood tests are used to diagnose thyroid disorders associated with hyper- or hypothyroidism. These include:

The specific blood tests that will be done to test your thyroid can include:

  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced in the pituitary gland and regulates the balance of thyroid hormones — including T4 and T3 — in the bloodstream. This is usually the first test your provider will do to check for thyroid hormone imbalance. Most of the time, thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism) is associated with an elevated TSH level, while thyroid hormone excess (hyperthyroidism) is associated with a low TSH level. If TSH is abnormal, measurement of thyroid hormones directly, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) may be done to further evaluate the problem. Normal TSH range for an adult: 0.40 – 4.50 mIU/mL (milli-international units per liter of blood).
  • T4: Thyroxine tests for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and used to monitor treatment of thyroid disorders. Low T4 is seen with hypothyroidism, whereas high T4 levels may indicate hyperthyroidism. Normal T4 range for an adult: 5.0 – 11.0 ug/dL (micrograms per deciliter of blood).
  • FT4: Free T4 or free thyroxine is a method of measuring T4 that eliminates the effect of proteins that naturally bind T4 and may prevent accurate measurement. Normal FT4 range for an adult: 0.9 – 1.7 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter of blood)
  • T3: Triiodothyronine tests help diagnose hyperthyroidism or to show the severity of hyperthyroidism. Low T3 levels can be observed in hypothyroidism, but more often this test is useful in the diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism, where T3 levels are elevated. Normal T3 range: 100 – 200 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter of blood).
  • FT3: Free T3 or free triiodothyronine is a method of measuring T3 that eliminates the effect of proteins that naturally bind T3 and may prevent accurate measurement. Normal FT3 range: 2.3 – 4.1 pg/mL (picograms per milliliter of blood)

These tests alone aren’t meant to diagnose any illness but may prompt your healthcare provider to do additional testing to evaluate for a possible thyroid disorder.

Additional blood tests might include:

  • Thyroid antibodies: These tests help identify different types of autoimmune thyroid conditions. Common thyroid antibody tests include microsomal antibodies (also known as thyroid peroxidase antibodies or TPO antibodies), thyroglobulin antibodies (also known as TG antibodies), and thyroid receptor antibodies (includes thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins [TSI] and thyroid blocking immunoglobulins [TBI]).
  • Calcitonin: This test is used to diagnose C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid cancer, both of which are rare thyroid disorders.
  • Thyroglobulin: This test is used to diagnose thyroiditis (thyroid inflammation) and to monitor treatment of thyroid cancer.

Talk to your healthcare provider about the ranges for these thyroid blood tests. Your ranges might not be the same as someone else’s. That’s often alright. If you have any concerns or worries about your blood test results, talk to your provider.

Imaging tests

In many cases, taking a look at the thyroid itself can answer a lot of questions. Your healthcare provider might do an imaging test called a thyroid scan. This allows your provider to look at your thyroid to check for an increased size, shape or growths (nodules).

Your provider could also use an imaging test called an ultrasound. This is a diagnostic procedure that transmits high-frequency sound waves, inaudible to the human ear, through body tissues. The echoes are recorded and transformed into video or photographic images. You may think of ultrasounds related to pregnancy, but they are used to diagnose many different issues within your body. Unlike X-rays, ultrasounds do not use radiation.

There’s typically little or no preparation before your ultrasound. You don’t need to change your diet beforehand or fast. During the test, you’ll lie flat on a padded examining table with your head positioned on a pillow so that your head is tilted back. A warm, water-soluble gel is applied to the skin over the area that’s being examined. This gel won’t hurt your skin or stain your clothes. Your healthcare provider will then apply a probe to your neck and gently move it around to see all parts of the thyroid.

An ultrasound typically takes about 20 to 30 minutes.

Physical exam

Another way to quickly check the thyroid is with a physical exam in your healthcare provider’s office. This is a very simple and painless test where your provider feels your neck for any growths or enlargement of the thyroid.

MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT

How is thyroid disease treated?

Your healthcare provider’s goal is to return your thyroid hormone levels to normal. This can be done in a variety of ways and each specific treatment will depend on the cause of your thyroid condition.

If you have high levels of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism), treatment options can include:

  • Anti-thyroid drugs (methimazole and propylthioracil): These are medications that stop your thyroid from making hormones.
  • Radioactive iodine: This treatment damages the cells of your thyroid, preventing it from making high levels of thyroid hormones.
  • Beta blockers: These medications don’t change the amount of hormones in your body, but they help control your symptoms.
  • Surgery: A more permanent form of treatment, your healthcare provider may surgically remove your thyroid (thyroidectomy). This will stop it from creating hormones. However, you will need to take thyroid replacement hormones for the rest of your life.

If you have low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism), the main treatment option is:

  • Thyroid replacement medication: This drug is a synthetic (man-made) way to add thyroid hormones back into your body. One drug that’s commonly used is called levothyroxine. By using a medication, you can control thyroid disease and live a normal life.

Are there different types of thyroid removal surgery?

If your healthcare provider determines that your thyroid needs to be removed, there are a couple of ways that can be done. Your thyroid may need to be completely removed or just partially. This will depend on the severity of your condition. Also, if your thyroid is very big (enlarged) or has a lot of growths on it, that could prevent you from being eligible for some types of surgery.

The surgery to remove your thyroid is called a thyroidectomy. There are two main ways this surgery can be done:

  • With an incision on the front of your neck.
  • With an incision in your armpit.

The incision on the front of your neck is more of the traditional version of a thyroidectomy. It allows your surgeon to go straight in and remove the thyroid. In many cases, this might be your best option. You may need this approach if your thyroid is particularly big or has a lot of larger nodules.

Alternatively, there is a version of the thyroid removal surgery where your surgeon makes an incision in your armpit and then creates a tunnel to your thyroid. This tunnel is made with a special tool called an elevated retractor. It creates an opening that connects the incision in your armpit with your neck. The surgeon will use a robotic arm that will move through the tunnel to get to the thyroid. Once there, it can remove the thyroid back through the tunnel and out of the incision in your armpit.

This procedure is often called scarless because the incision is under your armpit and out of sight. However, it’s more complicated for the surgeon and the tunnel is more invasive for you. You may not be a candidate for this type of thyroid removal if you:

  • Are not at a healthy body weight.
  • Have large thyroid nodules.
  • Have a condition like thyroiditis or Graves’s disease.

Talk to your doctor about all of your treatment options and the best type of surgery for you.

How long does it take to recover from thyroid surgery (thyroidectomy)?

It will take your body a few weeks to recover after your thyroid is surgically removed (thyroidectomy). During this time you should avoid a few things, including:

  • Submerging your incision under water.
  • Lifting an object that’s heavier than 15 pounds.
  • Doing more than light exercise.

This generally lasts for about two weeks. After that, you can return to your normal activities.

OUTLOOK / PROGNOSIS

How long after my thyroid is removed will my tiredness go away?

Typically, you will be given medication to help with your symptoms right after surgery. Your body actually has thyroid hormone still circulating throughout it, even after the thyroid has been removed. The hormones can still be in your body for two to three weeks. Medication will reintroduce new hormones into your body after the thyroid has been removed. If you are still feeling tired after surgery, remember that this can be a normal part of recovering from any type of surgery. It takes time for your body to heal. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are still experiencing fatigue and other symptoms of thyroid disease after surgery.

If part of my thyroid is surgically removed, will the other part be able to make enough thyroid hormones to keep me off of medication?

Sometimes, your surgeon may be able to remove part of your thyroid and leave the other part so that it can continue to create and release thyroid hormones. This is most likely in situations where you have a nodule that’s causing your thyroid problem. About 75% of people who have only one side of the thyroid removed are able to make enough thyroid hormone after surgery without hormone replacement therapy.

Should I exercise if I have a thyroid disease?

Regular exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. You do not need to change your exercise routine if you have a thyroid disease. Exercise does not drain your body’s thyroid hormones and it shouldn’t hurt you to exercise. It is important to talk to your healthcare provider before you start a new exercise routine to make sure that it’s a good fit for you.

Can I live a normal life with a thyroid disease?

A thyroid disease is often a life-long medical condition that you will need to manage constantly. This often involves a daily medication. Your healthcare provider will monitor your treatments and make adjustments over time. However, you can usually live a normal life with a thyroid disease. It may take some time to find the right treatment option for you and control your hormone levels, but then people with these types of conditions can usually live life without many restrictions.

Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

Burnout at Workplace: How to Recognize and What to do


Burnout, as it is defined, is not a medical condition — it’s “a manifestation of chronic unmitigated stress.” The World Health Organization describes burnout as a workplace phenomenon characterized by feelings of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced efficacy.

  Dr. Jessi Gold, a psychiatrist at Washington University in St. Louis, knows she’s edging toward burnout when she wakes up, feels instantly angry at her email inbox and doesn’t want to get out of bed. It’s perhaps not surprising that a mental health professional who is trying to stem the rising tide of burnout could burn out sometimes, too. After all, the phenomenon has practically become ubiquitous in our culture.

In a 2021 survey of 1,500 U.S. workers, more than half said they were feeling burned out as a result of their job demands, and a whopping 4.3 million Americans quit their jobs in December in what has come to be known as the “Great Resignation.” When people think of burnout, mental and emotional symptoms such as feelings of helplessness and cynicism often come to mind. But burnout can lead to physical symptoms as well, and experts say it can be wise to look out for the signs and take steps when you notice them.

              Burnout, as it is defined, is not a medical condition — it’s “a manifestation of chronic unmitigated stress,” explained Dr. Lotte Dyrbye, a physician scientist who studies burnout at the Mayo Clinic. The World Health Organization describes burnout as a workplace phenomenon characterized by feelings of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced efficacy.

“You start not functioning as well, you’re missing deadlines, you’re frustrated, you’re maybe irritable with your colleagues,” said Jeanette Bennett, a researcher who studies the effects of stress on health at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte.

But stress can have wear and tear effects on the body, especially when it doesn’t ease up after a while — so it makes sense that it can incite physical symptoms, too, Bennett said. When people are under stress, their bodies undergo changes that include making higher than normal levels of stress hormones such as cortisol, adrenaline, epinephrine and norepinephrine. These changes are helpful in the short term — they give us the energy to power through difficult situations — but over time, they start harming the body.

Our bodies were “not designed for the kinds of stressors that we face today,” said Christina Maslach, a social psychologist at the University of California, Berkeley, who has spent her career studying burnout.

Here’s how to recognize burnout in your body and what to do about it.

What to look out for

Insomnia- One common burnout symptom is insomnia, Dyrbye said. When researchers in Italy surveyed front-line health care workers with burnout during the first peak of the pandemic, they found that 55% reported having difficulty falling asleep, while nearly 40% had nightmares.

Research suggests that chronic stress interferes with the complicated neurological and hormonal system that regulates sleep. It’s a vicious cycle, because not sleeping throws this system even more out of whack. If you’ve noticed that you’re unable to sleep at night, that could be a sign that you’re experiencing burnout, Dyrbye said — and your sleeplessness could exacerbate the problem.

Physical exhaustion is another common sign. Gold said that one of her key symptoms of burnout was fatigue. “I realized I was sleeping every day after work — and I was like, ‘What is wrong with me?’ but it was actually burnout,” she said.

Changes in eating habits — either eating more or less than usual — can also be a sign of burnout: In the study of Italian health care workers, 56% reported changes in food habits. People might eat less because they’re too busy or distracted, or they might find themselves craving “those comfort foods that we all like to go to when we need something to make us feel better,” Bennett said. Research suggests, too, that stress hormones can affect appetite, making people feel less hungry than usual when they’re under a lot of stress, and more hungry than usual when that stress alleviates.

Headaches and stomachaches can also be incited by burnout, Gold said. One study of people in Sweden suffering from exhaustion disorder — a medical condition similar to burnout — found that 67% reported experiencing nausea, gas or indigestion, and that 65% had headaches. It’s also important to note that burnout can develop alongside depression or anxiety, both of which can cause physical symptoms. Depression can cause muscle aches, stomachaches, sleep issues and appetite changes. Anxiety is linked to headaches, nausea and shortness of breath.

What to do

If you’re experiencing physical symptoms that could be indicative of burnout, consider seeing your primary care doctor or a mental health professional to determine whether they are driven by stress or rooted in other physical conditions, Dyrbye said. Don’t just ignore the symptoms and assume they don’t matter.

“It’s really easy to blow off your own symptoms, especially in our culture, where we’re taught to work hard,” Gold said.

If it is burnout, then the best solution is to address the root of the problem. Burnout is typically recognized when it is job-driven, but chronic stress can have a variety of causes — financial problems, relationship woes and caregiving burdens, among other things. Think about “the pebbles in your shoe all the time that you have to deal with,” Maslach said, and brainstorm ways to remove some of them, at least some of the time. Perhaps you can ask your partner to help more with your toddler’s bedtime routine, or get takeout when you’re especially busy so you don’t have to plan dinner, too.

Despite popular culture coverage of the issue, burnout can’t be “fixed” with better self care, Maslach said — in fact, this implication only worsens the problem, because it lays the blame and responsibility on those with burnout and implies that they should do more to feel better, which is not the case, she said. However, some lifestyle choices can make burnout less likely. Social support, for instance, can help, Gold said. This could include talking to a therapist or meeting with friends (even if over Zoom). It may also help to take advantage of mental health or exercise benefits offered by your employer. Sleeping more can help too — so if you’re suffering from insomnia, talk to a doctor about possible treatments, Bennett suggested.

Finally, while you may not want to add more to your plate, try to make a bit of time each day for something you love, Dyrbye said. Her work has found that surgeons who make time for hobbies and recreation — even just 15 to 20 minutes a day — are less likely to experience burnout than surgeons who don’t.

“You have to have something outside of work that helps you de-stress, that helps you focus and helps you relax,” she said.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

 21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

Blog at WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: