What is Cerebral palsy? Symptoms, Causes, Prevention


Microsoft Corp. said Zain Nadella, son of Chief Executive Officer Satya and his wife Anu, died Monday morning. He was 26 years old and had been born with cerebral palsy. The software maker told its executive staff in an email that Zain had passed away. The message asked executives to hold the family in their thoughts and prayers while giving them space to grieve privately.

Zain Nadella, son of C E O Satya died, suffering from cerebral palsy.

 What is Cerebral palsy?

Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect movement and muscle tone or posture. It’s caused by damage that occurs to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth.

Signs and symptoms appear during infancy or preschool years. In general, cerebral palsy causes impaired movement associated with exaggerated reflexes, floppiness or spasticity of the limbs and trunk, unusual posture, involuntary movements, unsteady walking, or some combination of these.

People with cerebral palsy can have problems swallowing and commonly have eye muscle imbalance, in which the eyes don’t focus on the same object. They also might have reduced range of motion at various joints of their bodies due to muscle stiffness.

The cause of cerebral palsy and its effect on function vary greatly. Some people with cerebral palsy can walk; others need assistance. Some people have intellectual disabilities, but others do not. Epilepsy, blindness or deafness also might be present. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder. There is no cure, but treatments can help improve function.

Symptoms

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary greatly from person to person. Cerebral palsy can affect the whole body, or it might be limited primarily to one or two limbs, or one side of the body. Generally, signs and symptoms include problems with movement and coordination, speech and eating, development, and other problems.

Movement and coordination

  • Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity), the most common movement disorder
  • Variations in muscle tone, such as being either too stiff or too floppy
  • Stiff muscles with normal reflexes (rigidity)
  • Lack of balance and muscle coordination (ataxia)
  • Tremors or jerky involuntary movements
  • Slow, writhing movements
  • Favoring one side of the body, such as only reaching with one hand or dragging a leg while crawling
  • Difficulty walking, such as walking on toes, a crouched gait, a scissors-like gait with knees crossing, a wide gait or an asymmetrical gait
  • Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as buttoning clothes or picking up utensils

Speech and eating

  • Delays in speech development
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Difficulty with sucking, chewing or eating
  • Excessive drooling or problems with swallowing

Development

  • Delays in reaching motor skills milestones, such as sitting up or crawling
  • Learning difficulties
  • Intellectual disabilities
  • Delayed growth, resulting in smaller size than would be expected

Other problems

Damage to the brain can contribute to other neurological problems, such as:

  • Seizures (epilepsy)
  • Difficulty hearing
  • Problems with vision and abnormal eye movements
  • Abnormal touch or pain sensations
  • Bladder and bowel problems, including constipation and urinary incontinence
  • Mental health conditions, such as emotional disorders and behavioral problems

The brain disorder causing cerebral palsy doesn’t change with time, so the symptoms usually don’t worsen with age. However, as the child gets older, some symptoms might become more or less apparent. And muscle shortening and muscle rigidity can worsen if not treated aggressively.

When to see a doctor

It’s important to get a prompt diagnosis for a movement disorder or delays in your child’s development. See your child’s doctor if you have concerns about episodes of loss of awareness of surroundings or of unusual bodily movements or muscle tone, impaired coordination, swallowing difficulties, eye muscle imbalance, or other developmental issues.

Causes

Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain. This usually happens before a child is born, but it can occur at birth or in early infancy. In many cases, the cause isn’t known. Many factors can lead to problems with brain development. Some include:

  • Gene mutations that result in genetic disorders or differences in brain development
  • Maternal infections that affect the developing fetus
  • Fetal stroke, a disruption of blood supply to the developing brain
  • Bleeding into the brain in the womb or as a newborn
  • Infant infections that cause inflammation in or around the brain
  • Traumatic head injury to an infant, such as from a motor vehicle accident, fall or physical abuse
  • Lack of oxygen to the brain related to difficult labor or delivery, although birth-related asphyxia is much less commonly a cause than historically thought

Risk factors

A number of factors are associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy.

Maternal health

Certain infections or toxic exposures during pregnancy can significantly increase cerebral palsy risk to the baby. Inflammation triggered by infection or fever can damage the unborn baby’s developing brain.

  • Cytomegalovirus. This common virus causes flu-like symptoms and can lead to birth defects if a mother has her first active infection during pregnancy.
  • German measles (rubella). This viral infection can be prevented with a vaccine.
  • Herpes. This infection can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, affecting the womb and placenta.
  • Syphilis. This is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.
  • Toxoplasmosis. This infection is caused by a parasite found in contaminated food, soil and the feces of infected cats.
  • Zika virus infection. This infection is spread through mosquito bites and can affect fetal brain development.
  • Intrauterine infections. This includes infections of the placenta or fetal membranes.
  • Exposure to toxins. One example is exposure to methyl mercury.
  • Other conditions. Other conditions affecting the mother that can slightly increase the risk of cerebral palsy include thyroid problems, preeclampsia or seizures.

Infant illness

Illnesses in a newborn baby that can greatly increase the risk of cerebral palsy include:

  • Bacterial meningitis. This bacterial infection causes inflammation in the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  • Viral encephalitis. This viral infection similarly causes inflammation in the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  • Severe or untreated jaundice. Jaundice appears as a yellowing of the skin. The condition occurs when certain byproducts of “used” blood cells aren’t filtered from the bloodstream.
  • Bleeding into the brain. This condition is commonly caused by the baby having a stroke in the womb or in early infancy.

Factors of pregnancy and birth

While the potential contribution from each is limited, additional pregnancy or birth factors associated with increased cerebral palsy risk include:

  • Low birth weight. Babies who weigh less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kilograms) are at higher risk of developing cerebral palsy. This risk increases as birth weight drops.
  • Multiple babies. Cerebral palsy risk increases with the number of babies sharing the uterus. The risk also can be related to the likelihood of premature birth and low birth weight. If one or more of the babies die, the survivors’ risk of cerebral palsy increases.
  • Premature birth. Babies born prematurely are at higher risk of cerebral palsy. The earlier a baby is born, the greater the cerebral palsy risk.
  • Delivery complications. Problems during labor and delivery may increase the risk of cerebral palsy.

Complications

Muscle weakness, muscle spasticity and coordination problems can contribute to a number of complications either during childhood or in adulthood, including:

  • Contracture. Contracture is muscle tissue shortening due to severe muscle tightening that can be the result of spasticity. Contracture can inhibit bone growth, cause bones to bend, and result in joint deformities, dislocation or partial dislocation. These can include hip dislocation, curvature of the spine (scoliosis) and other orthopedic deformities.
  • Malnutrition. Swallowing or feeding problems can make it difficult for someone who has cerebral palsy, particularly an infant, to get enough nutrition. This can impair growth and weaken bones. Some children or adults need a feeding tube to get enough nutrition.
  • Mental health conditions. People with cerebral palsy might have mental health conditions, such as depression. Social isolation and the challenges of coping with disabilities can contribute to depression. Behavioral problems can also occur.
  • Heart and lung disease. People with cerebral palsy may develop heart disease, lung disease and breathing disorders. Problems with swallowing can result in respiratory problems, such as aspiration pneumonia.
  • Osteoarthritis. Pressure on joints or abnormal alignment of joints from muscle spasticity may lead to the early onset of this painful degenerative bone disease.
  • Osteoporosis. Fractures due to low bone density can result from several factors such as lack of mobility, inadequate nutrition and anti-epileptic drug use.
  • Other complications. These can include sleep disorders, chronic pain, skin breakdown, intestinal problems and issues with oral health.

Prevention

Most cases of cerebral palsy can’t be prevented, but you can reduce risks. If you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant, you can take these steps to keep healthy and minimize pregnancy complications:

  • Make sure you’re vaccinated. Getting vaccinated against diseases such as rubella, preferably before getting pregnant, might prevent an infection that could cause fetal brain damage.
  • Take care of yourself. The healthier you are heading into a pregnancy, the less likely you’ll be to develop an infection that results in cerebral palsy.
  • Seek early and continuous prenatal care. Regular visits to your doctor during your pregnancy are a good way to reduce health risks to you and your unborn baby. Seeing your doctor regularly can help prevent premature birth, low birth weight and infections.
  • Avoid alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs. These have been linked to cerebral palsy risk.

Rarely, cerebral palsy can be caused by brain damage that occurs in childhood. Practice good general safety. Prevent head injuries by providing your child with a car seat, bicycle helmet, safety rails on the bed and appropriate supervision.

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     Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Unjustified Profiteering in Medical Education Pushing Indian Students to Ukraine


       The ongoing Russia- Ukraine conflict has generated a discussion about a sub-plot, which links to India’s medical education.  There have been reports that there are 18000 Indian medical students in Ukraine. People are wondering why Medical Students from India need to go to Ukraine for studying medicine. Answer is quite simple and does not need an Einstein Brain.  It is the steep fee that private medical colleges charge from students which is unjustified and beyond any logic. It just needs a sincere ‘Government Will’ to implement the justified fee for MBBS seats in private medical colleges in India. Medical colleges in Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Bangladesh, Philippines and China have been benefitted because of the severe exploitation of medical students in India.

      It needs a sincere and honest assessment of the fee and expenditure of medical college and education rather than a permission for heavy profiteering. If honest calculations are carried out, the fee should not be more than one fifth of present rates, taking into account the hospital services expenditure.

What draws med students to Ukraine? Affordability

What draws med students to Ukraine? Affordability – Times of India

Why do Indian students go to Ukraine to pursue courses, especially MBBS? Because of affordability, says Manjula Naidu, proprietor of a firm that helps send students to Ukraine’s Bukovinian State Medical University. Usha Rani, an Anekal resident whose son is in first-year MBBS at Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, said she wouldn’t have sent him to Ukraine had she been able to pay nearly Rs 80 lakh for an MBBS course in Karnataka. Though Karnataka has more than 9,000 MBBS seats, government quota seats account for not even 40%, forcing many aspirants to opt for countries like Ukraine, Georgia and Kyrgyzstan. What students and their parents find attractive is the Rs 25-30 lakh package for the entire course. Besides there are consulting agencies to help them with loans and the medium of instruction is English.  On the other hand, the first fee slab for an MBBS seat in a government college is Rs 59,000 per year, followed by the second slab of government quota seats in private colleges (Rs 1.4 lakh per annum). The next fee slab is of private seats (management quota) in private colleges that varies from Rs 10 lakh to Rs 25 lakh a year. Even more expensive are the NRI quota seats and those in deemed universities.

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Expensive Medical College  seat- Is it worth it?

Moral bankruptcy of administrators #unpaid doctors


     In an era when doctors are being punished for small mistakes or merely perceived negligence, the blunders committed by administrators are not even noticed. Doctors are not paid for four months and for protesting the same, they were given termination letters.  It seems that doctors need to live with blatant injustice all their lives.

 Any punishment for the  administrators for mismanagement? Looks impossible but punishment to the sufferers is on the cards.

     Medical students or aspiring doctors should be carefully watching the behaviour and cruelty by which doctors are governed, regulated and treated by administrators. Mere few words of respect and false lip service during Covid-pandemic  should not mask the real face of administrators, indifference of courts and harshness of Government towards medical profession. Choosing medical careers can land anyone into the situations, which are unimaginable in a civilized world.

    Doctors pleadings even for their rightful issues and routine problems are paid deaf and indifferent ears. It is disheartening to see that they receive apathetic attitude and dealt with stick or false assurances even for the issues which should have been solved automatically in routine even by average application of governance.

             It is discouraging for the whole medical fraternity to see that even the rightful is not being given what to expect the gratitude and respect.

         The indifferent behaviour has also unveiled the approach of  tokenism such as ‘mere lip service’  showing respect to corona warriors.

      The strong political and legal will is absent to solve Doctors’ problems.

 Unpaid doctors; Medical staff protest on- termination order?

New Delhi: Doctors, nurses and paramedical staff of East Delhi Municipal Corporation-run hospitals continued their protest on Thursday as well over non-payment of salaries for four months.
Meanwhile, an order issued by the medical superintendent of Swami Dayanand Hospital, Dr Rajni Khedwal, stated that services of all senior and junior resident doctors would be considered terminated from February 4 and fresh interviews would be conducted accordingly. The order also stated that all Diplomate of National Board (DNB) residents and contractual doctors would be marked absent.

“We all were there in the protest, none of us went for our duties. We have also asked the administration to speak on our behalf because they are too part of the hospital. Maybe the matter will be resolved tomorrow. Unless we get a concrete statement regarding salary, we will continue the protest,” said Dr Atul Jain, president of the hospital’s resident doctors’ association.

Meanwhile, EDMC commissioner Vikas Anand said that no order had been issued regarding the termination/suspension of the striking doctors’ services so far. The termination order is only for the DNB workers and for the rest of the medical staff, it is based on ‘no work no pay’ as per the SC rule, he clarified.

“The salaries will be provided at the earliest. We have a very good team of doctors at Swami Dayanand Hospital. The only request is that they should join back and resume services,” said the commissioner.


Anand also said that the salaries for the months of February and March would be paid on time. “EDMC is going through a financial crisis and even in such difficult times, the corporation is sensitive towards the interests of its employees. Their due arrears will be paid in the month of May as per the availability of the funds,” he added.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

     REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

     21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

     Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons


Quack Menace: Infant loses glans in botched circumcision


Infant loses glans in botched circumcision done by quack

        In an era, when even licensed and qualified doctors are finding it difficult to practice medicine, it is strange that unqualified and unlicensed are having a field day. Why strict regulations do not apply to them, is beyond any reasoning and logic. If a medical facility or clinic is functional, it is difficult for the patient, especially in emergency, to check or even doubt its credentials. How such facilities are open, functional and thriving. Sadly our regulation is trying to regulate, who are already regulated. It is trying to punish those who are qualified and licensed, but turns a blind eye towards unlicensed and unqualified doctors.

     Such fake doctors own medical set ups, may conduct surgeries, sometimes run hospitals with little help from qualified doctors  and do procedures. Another problem is that they   promote fake rumours about genuinely qualified doctors and create a mist of mistrust to propagate their fake medical business.

A toddler has died Australia after circumcision

Quack Menace: Infant loses glans in botched circumcision

 The glans of an infant’s penis shrivelled and fell off after a quack tied a horse’s hair around it ‘to prevent bleeding’ after a ritual of circumcision. The child was rushed to hospital, where a surgery was performed to ensure that the baby will be able to urinate normally, but the boy has lost his glans.. A quack had conducted the religious ritual of circumcision on November 22, 2021, and tied a horse hair to the child’s penis. He then bandaged it and told the family to go home.

The child was born in October 2021. Ten days later, the family members noticed that the glans had come off along with the dressing. Families choose to get their male infants circumcised by neighbourhood quacks. This is not just unhygienic, but can lead to major complications as well. Other unhealthy practices like sprinkling ash on the wound after circumcision are also prevalent.

A toddler has died in Australia after circumcision

A toddler has died and his baby brother has required life-saving surgery in hospital after a medical procedure, understood to have been a circumcision, went horribly wrong in Perth’s south-east. The brothers were rushed to hospital in Armadale by family Tuesday evening following the surgeries. The West Australian reports a two-year-old boy was pronounced dead at the hospital’s emergency department. His infant brother – aged between seven and eight months – was rushed to Perth Children’s Hospital for emergency surgery.7NEWS reports he has since been discharged from hospital. WA Police have confirmed the toddler’s death is not being treated as suspicious. “It can be confirmed the boy underwent a medical procedure at a registered medical centre prior to his death,” a police spokeswoman said.

Circumcision is one of the oldest surgical procedures and one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in practice today. Descriptions of ritual circumcision span across cultures, and have been described in ancient Egyptian texts as well as the Old Testament. In the United States, circumcision is a commonly performed procedure. It is a relatively safe procedure with a low overall complication rate. Most complications are minor and can be managed easily. Though uncommon, complications of circumcision do represent a significant percentage of cases seen by paediatric urologists. Often they require surgical correction that results in a significant cost to the health care system. Severe complications are quite rare, but death has been reported as a result in some cases. A thorough and complete preoperative evaluation, focusing on bleeding history and birth history, is imperative. Proper selection of patients based on age and anatomic considerations as well as proper sterile surgical technique are critical to prevent future circumcision-related adverse events.

Complications of circumcision

Bleeding- Bleeding is the most commonly encountered complication of circumcision.

Infection, Insufficient Foreskin Removed, Excessive foreskin removed, Adhesions / Skin , Bridges, Inclusion Cysts, abnormal Healing

Meatitis, Meatal Stenosis, Urinary Retention, Phimosis, Chordee, Hypospadias, Epispadias

Urethrocutaneous Fistula, Necrosis of the Penis, Amputation of the Glans

Death—    death is an extremely unlikely complication of neonatal circumcision, but it has been reported.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

     REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

     21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

     Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons


Doctors treating anarchic & lawless society # Doctor killed for perceived negligence


   In an act of revenge that took over two years, a doctor with a government hospital in Yavatmal – 650 km from Mumbai – was shot dead, allegedly by a family member of his patient who had died under the doctor’s supervision two years ago.

   Attacks and assaults on doctors is an indicator of a lawless, uncivilized society, poor governance and broken health system.  Unwillingness or failure of government to prevent such attacks on doctors will have deep ramifications on future of medical profession.  The impunity with which criminals can dare to take law into their hands and punish doctors instantly at will is a blatant disrespect to courts and judicial system. In absence of strict laws for protection of doctors, health care workers have become vulnerable to  assaults and revenge.

    Doctors have become punching bags for all the malaise prevalent in the system. A failing system which is unable to provide  health to the people and security to doctors. The rickety system hides behind their hard working doctors and presents them as punching bags. The impunity with which attendant easily and brutally assault doctors is really appalling, should be shameful to law enforcing agencies.

            Role of media, celebrities, film stars and prominent personalities in spreading the hatred against the medical profession and creating an environment of mistrust is unpardonable. They project   single stray incident   as an example and portray poor image of medical profession as generalization just to earn money and fame for themselves.

 Hence by selective projection the blame for deficiencies of inept system, powerful industry, inadequate infrastructure and poor outcomes of serious diseases is shifted conveniently to doctors, who are unable to retaliate to the powerful media machinery.   Role of doctor associations, parent institutes have been spineless and not encouraging.

        The demonstration of the cleft that separates doctors from the actual overpowering controlling medical industry and administrators is not given, in order to maintain the prejudice with its dangerous bias towards doctors, who are in forefront and are visible to public.  

Relatives shot and kill doctor for perceived negligence

Family members of the patient had alleged that it was due to the negligence of Dr Hanumant Dharmakare, medical officer at the R P Uttarwar Kutir Hospital, that their son Arbaz (20), who had met with a bike accident, died in May 2019.

The police are on the lookout for the main suspect, Aifaz Shaikh, the elder brother of Arbaz, who is believed to have shot the doctor.On January 11, Dharmakare was shot dead in broad daylight by an unidentified person on the Umarkhed – Pusad Road in Yavatmal. The police team found that the application concerned the death of his nephew Arbaz.When the police questioned Tousif further, they found that his nephew Arbaz had met with an accident on May 4, 2019. Arbaz had been riding a bike with his brother Aifaz (then 22) and a relative Moshin, when the accident took place.The family had rushed the trio to the local hospital, where Dharmakare was the on-duty doctor. The family alleged that due to negligence on the part of the doctor, Arbaaz lost his life. The family even had a fight with Dharmakare and they allegedly threatened that he would have to pay for his actions. Bhujbal said that during the police investigation, they found that for the past two years, the family had been looking for an opportunity to get back at Dharmakare. They had kept an eye on his movements even earlier this year, following which they decided to allegedly kill him last Tuesday. It was Arbaz’s elder brother Aifaz who allegedly fired at the doctor and fled from the spot on the bike.

Are we a lawless society? More problematic is the government apathy and silence of human right commission. Here comes the point that what is the role of our doctor’s organizations, human right organizations, parent hospitals and institutes.

   Good Governance lies in prevention of such incidents. Knee-jerk policing activities after every incident are of limited benefit.   Moreover  the  impunity with which people  dare to take law into their hands and  tend to punish doctors instantly for perceived negligence,  is a blatant disrespect to courts and judicial system.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

     REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

     21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

     Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

US Doctor hailed-Indian Doctor Jailed for Same Surgery & gap of 25 years


      

In a medical first, doctors transplanted a pig heart into a patient in a last-ditch effort to save his life and a Maryland hospital said Monday that he’s doing well three days after the highly experimental surgery. While it’s too soon to know if the operation really will work, it marks a step in the decades-long quest to one day use animal organs for life-saving transplants.

   In 1997, Dr Dhani Ram Baruah, along with Hong Kong surgeon Dr Jonathan Ho Kei-Shing, carried out a pig-to-human heart and lung transplant in Guwahati (India). The transplant stirred controversy all over and both the doctors were arrested within a fortnight for culpable homicide and under the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, and imprisoned for 40 days.

       The fault of Dr Baruah was that he was on the wrong side of the laws prevailing at that time. But now after 25 years USA has provided evidence that he was scientifically ahead of his times; hence punished and sent to jail for the same reason.  Instead of updating the laws, accepting and promoting the scientific advancement and encouraging the brilliance of the doctor, he was put in jail. The result is that now everyone is hailing the feat of doctors in USA for the same surgery that Dr Baruah dared to perform 25 years ago.

        In a patient with terminal  heart  failure, life is  only possible if heart transplant is done. Human heart is difficult to be procured.

     The point to ponder is that whether Laws should be made or may be updated to promote or help scientific brilliance or it is wise to follow them blindly without application to  future wisdom. Instead of punishing and sending Dr Baruah to jail, Laws could have been modified or updated to help the path breaking advancement, which could have helped patients and saved lives.

       Such high handedness of authorities just point to an ecosystem, where scientific advancements and individual brilliance  are not respected.

       As doctors in the United States hail the path-breaking surgery in which a patient is recovering after receiving a heart from a genetically modified pig in Maryland, it evokes memories of an Indian doctor who had attempted the same over 20 years ago in Assam.

For those who haven’t read, US doctors transplanted a pig heart into David Bennett, a 57-year-old Maryland handyman, in a last-ditch effort to save his life and a Maryland hospital said that he’s doing well three days after the highly experimental surgery.

We go back in time to take a look at the case in which Dr Dhani Ram Baruah, a transplant surgeon from Assam conducted a pig-to-human heart and lung transplant in Guwahati and why that incident got shrouded in controversy and led to him being imprisoned for 40 days.

The incident                                                   

In 1997, Dr Dhani Ram Baruah, along with Hong Kong surgeon Dr Jonathan Ho Kei-Shing, carried out a pig-to-human heart and lung transplant in Guwahati.

Times of India report says that Dr Baruah transplanted a pig’s heart into a 32-year-old man, who had a ventricular septal defect, or hole in the heart.

According to Dr Baruah, the surgery — conducted at his very own facility, the Dhani Ram Baruah Heart Institute, and Institute of Applied Human Genetic Engineering at Sonapur outside Guwahati — was completed in 15 hours.

However, the 32-year-old man “developed new anti-hyperacute rejection biochemical solution to treat donor’s heart and lung and blind its immune system to avoid rejection”, reported the Indian Express, and he died a week later.

The transplant stirred controversy all over and both the doctors were arrested within a fortnight for culpable homicide and under the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, and imprisoned for 40 days.

The Assam government formed an inquiry into the case and found that the procedure was unethical.

The inquiry also found that the Dr Dhaniram Heart Institute and Research Centre had “neither applied for nor obtained registration” as required under the transplant laws.

What happened next?

After being in jail for 40 days, the doctor returned to his clinic but found it to be destroyed. A Times of India report added that he spent the next 18 months under virtual house arrest.

But, the doctor, who faced taunts, continued his research.

Controversy’s child?

Dr Baruah hit the headlines again in 2008 when he claimed that he had developed a ‘genetically engineered’ vaccine that would correct congenital heart defects.

In 2015, he once again became popular after claiming to have discovered the ‘cure’ for HIV/AIDS and that he had ‘cured’ 86 people in the past seven-eight years.

He also wrote to the UNAIDS, WHO and the National Institute of Health of USA to tell them of his ‘successes’ and was open to scrutiny.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

     REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

     21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

     Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

Highly Contagious – Low Virulence?  Omicron-Covid-Variant


    If the initial data is correct, the Omicron-Variant of Covid is proving to  be of Highly Contagious –  Low Virulence.

     The Omicron variant is less likely to lead to less severe disease in people who have taken vaccines or had Covid-19 in the past, two studies from the UK have said.

Taken together with findings from South Africa – all three studies were released on Wednesday – there is now sound scientific basis to conclude the variant is less virulent than others, especially Delta, which caused a devastating outbreak in India last summer and sparked new waves in other countries.

The findings are the first encouraging scientific evidence linked to the variant of concern (VOC) discovered last month when it started tearing through parts of South Africa at a rate not seen with any other Sars-Cov-2 variant. Scientists soon discovered it was also the most resistant configuration of the coronavirus, leading to higher odds of repeat and vaccine breakthrough infections.

If the Omicron variant was to be as virulent, or more, than Delta, the implications would have been dire, although its high transmissibility and resistance still pose a threat.

“Our analysis shows evidence of a moderate reduction in the risk of hospitalisation associated with the Omicron variant compared with the Delta variant. However, this appears to be offset by the reduced efficacy of vaccines against infection with the Omicron variant. Given the high transmissibility of the Omicron virus, there remains the potential for health services to face increasing demand if Omicron cases continue to grow at the rate that has been seen in recent weeks,” said professor Neil Ferguson of Imperial College London, which released the analysis of Omicron and Delta cases in England.

Two UK studies, similar severity findings

The Imperial College study included all RT-PCR-confirmed Covid-19 cases recorded between December 1-14 in England. It found that Omicron cases have, on average, a 15-20% reduced risk of needing to visit a hospital (the lowest level of severity) and an approximately 40-45% reduced risk of a hospitalisation resulting in a stay of one or more nights.

It also found that a past infection offered approximately a 50-70% reduction in hospitalisation risk compared. All of these comparisons were made against risks of hospitalisation seen with the Delta variant.

The researchers estimate that in unvaccinated people being infected for the first time, the risk of hospitalisation may be lowered by 0-30%, suggesting the severity in completely immune-naive people may not be very different from those who had a Delta infection for the first time, without any vaccine.

The other UK study was from Scotland. Although based on a small number of hospitalisations, the study made similar findings: those with Omicron infections were 68% less likely to need hospitalisation compared to people infected with the Delta variant.

Both reports, as well as the South African study, are yet to be peer-reviewed.

The Imperial College researchers also said in their study that Omicron infections in people with vaccination may be even less likely to require ICU admission or lead to death when compared to Delta variant, “given that remaining immune protection against more severe outcomes of infection are expected to be much higher than those against milder endpoints”.

Need for vaccines, boosters

The detailed findings corroborate lab studies that show people with booster doses have a more adequate immune response to counter the Omicron variant. In their real-world analysis, the Scotland report found a 57% reduction in the risk of symptomatic infection in people who were infected with the VOC compared to those who just had two doses at least 25 weeks prior.

The detailed Imperial College findings made similar findings. For instance, people with two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine (used in India as the Covishield vaccine), had a higher risk ratio of 0.37 than those with three doses of the same vaccine (0.21). These risk ratios mean two doses reduced the risk of hospitalisation by 63% while three doses cut it by 79%.

Crucially, the report added, people who took the AstraZeneca vaccine had a lower risk in needing to visit a hospital if infected by the Omicron variant when compared to the equivalent risk in the case of a Delta variant infection. In the case of Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines, the likelihood of requiring a hospital visit – defined as the lowest level of severity – were similar between Omicron and Delta infections.

The report also stressed on the need to vaccinate the unvaccinated, especially those who did not have a past infection. “The proportion of unvaccinated individuals infected is likely to be substantially higher. In that context, our finding that a previous infection reduces the risk of any hospitalisation by approximately 50% and the risk of a hospital stay of 1+ days by 61% (before adjustments for under ascertainment of reinfections) is significant,” the report said.

  Most cases In India Asymptomatic

With reports of new cases surfacing, the overall number of Omicron cases in India has now reached 33. According to experts, the spread of the new variant is less concerning than that of Delta as the symptoms are mild. While this is partly because of the nature of this new variant, another reason might be the high rate of seropositivity of Indians, experts have said.

“India has the advantage of a very high rate of ‘seropositivity’ of 70, 80 per cent, and in big cities more than 90 per cent people already have antibodies,” Rakesh Mishra, former Director of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) here, told PTI. Even if people get infected by Omicron, it will be very mild and mostly asymptomatic, Mishra said.

India’s Omicron tally rises to 33: Tracing Covid-19’s new variant in various states

A fresh wave of the pandemic may come even without Omicron, Mishra said referring to the fresh waves in Europe. Ruling out the possibility of a surge in hospitalisation, he said wearing the mask, maintaining social distancing and getting vaccinated remain the three major weapons against future waves.

All Omicron cases in India are mild and there has been no report of Omicron death in India and in any country of the world. The common symptoms are weakness, sore throat etc. Many Omicron patients of India have already recovered and tested negative for Covid.

Capital Delhi reported a new Omicron case on Saturday as a Zimbabwe-returnee tested positive. Reports said the patient only complained of weakness.

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Medical Education: Doctors- Victims of Grave Injustice Expected to Impart Justice to all


        Non-uniformity of medical education is treating  medical students  as  slaves and  killing enthusiasm of young doctors.

    Medical profession is an extremely strenuous and highly specialised field that requires individuals to dedicate their lives in the service of others. As part of medical professionals’ education and training, they are necessitated to undertake training across various settings. In this context, a stipend is paid as a matter of right and not charity. It is therefore essential that parity and equity be maintained across all medical institutions, whether run by private bodies or by the government.    In absence of proper Governance and rules, the young doctors are thrown at the mercy of cruel businessman for proper pay and working conditions.

Ensure uniform stipend to Interns: Binoy Viswam, Rajya Sabha MP

Great disparity in stipend at Govt. Private Colleges

     Medical education is one field where  one can notice the  extreme  variations of the unimaginable magnitude that are beyond comfort.  

      Falling standards  of medical education is the most important  side effect  which  should be an  important issue, but sadly it is the last  priority  on the list of administrators. Each and every medical college can be different and student passing out of many colleges receive below average medical education.

     Another important  variation is in the stipend and remuneration of  young  trainee doctors receive. It varies from college to college, city to city, state to state as well as North to  South and East to West. Besides being a cause for heartburn. it is a cause for  extreme  dissatisfaction among medical students.

      Needless to say the arbitrariness exercised  by various authorities to pay  them at their will is a reflection of grave injustice imposed by administrators.

    Another arbitrariness reflecting injustice is variation in fee of medical colleges. The steep fee charged by private medical colleges and restrictive bonds of Government  medical colleges in name of expensive medical seats need a sincere and honest introspection by authorities. The basis for calculations of the cost of medical education should be transparent and shown in public domain.

     Needless to say that medical students have been sufferers  of poor and arbitrariness of inept  administrative policies. Just because they decided to be doctors, they have to endure poor,  unjust  and arbitrary policies.

     Ironically as a child decides to be a  doctor, he is exploited in name of such policies of  unreasonable  high fee, poor education and low pay. That too while working in  extremely inhuman   conditions,  long and hard working hours. Strangely these medical students  suffer grave injustice  inflicted by the society  since  start of their medical education, but when they become doctors, everyone  expects sympathy, empathy and honesty.

    In absence of proper Governance and rules, the young doctors are thrown at the mercy of cruel businessman.

      Still the sufferers of grave  injustice themselves  are expected to impart justice to everyone  along with  burden  of mistrust.

Ensure uniform stipend to Interns: Great disparity in stipend at Govt. Private Colleges

Binoy Viswam, Rajya Sabha MP, has urged Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya to ensure equity in payment of internship to medical students in private and government medical colleges across the country.In a letter to the Minister, Mr. Viswam said that the National Medical Commission’s Draft Regulations on Compulsory Rotating Internship, 2021, issued on April 21 and gazetted on November 18, had said that all interns shall be paid stipend “as fixed by the appropriate fee fixation authority as applicable to the institution/university/State.”

Ambiguity

“The phrasing of this provision allowed for great ambiguity and arbitrariness. It may also result in management of private colleges denying stipend to the interns as they have complete discretion without any safeguarding mechanism. The ramifications of the same are already being seen in colleges across the country as great variance exists in stipend amounts being paid in government colleges as opposed to private colleges,” he pointed out.

A right, not charity

Mr. Viswam said that medical profession was an extremely strenuous and highly specialised field that required individuals to dedicate their lives in the service of others. “As part of medical professionals’ education and training, they are necessitated to undertake internships across various settings. In this context, a stipend is paid as a matter of right and not charity. It is therefore essential that parity and equity be maintained across all medical institutions, whether run by private bodies or by the government,” he said.

The MP requested the Minister to consult with all stakeholders, including State governments, medical college managements, medical professionals, and students to formulate a policy that ensures equity among medical students. A uniform stipend to all interns would ensure that, he added.

The erstwhile Medical Council of India had come up with a public notice on January 25, 2019, on Graduate Medical Education Regulations, 1997. The Board of Governors that superseded the MCI was considering a provision that said “All the candidates pursuing compulsory rotating internship at the institution from which MBBS course was completed, shall be paid stipend on par with the stipend being paid to the interns of the State government medical institution/Central government medical institution in the State/Union Territory where the institution is located.” However, it was not gazetted until the Board was dissolved.

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

     REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

     21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

     Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

The Book-‘At the Horizon of Life & Death’: Doctors’ struggle with death


The 300-page book contains 20 stories divided into three parts viz – Larva & Pupa Syndrome, Hope & Fear & Medical Lawsuits. The book is available worldwide on Kindle Amazon, Apple, Barnes & Noble, Tolino, Kobo, Scibd, BorrowBox, Baker & Taylor , Vivilo, Overdrive  etc.

      While doctors are usually blamed for any mishap, be it natural poor prognosis or genuine complications, rarely people get to know their side of the story — how a dying patient affects their psyche, how they deal with these patients and their kith and kin, what are the kinds of abuse and threats made when they are not able to save a life despite their best efforts. Dr Pankaj Kumar, Director Critical Care at a Delhi Hospital, India has come out with an insightful account of these very aspects of a doctor’s life.

         His book ‘At the Horizon of Life & Death’ is a Reality Fiction that reflects the sensitivity involved in dealing with patients facing death.

     Through the eyes of its protagonist Dr Anand, the book captures significant moments in the treatment trajectory of critical patients. The book tries to create awareness regarding pertinent issues faced by the medical professionals like demoralisation, expensive medical education, the extreme pressure and suicidal ideation, the plight of the nurses and support staff, assaults and violence and the medico-legal intricacies involved in day-to-day practice among others. The author has also taken care to guide aspiring doctors to make well-informed career decisions.

     Part One (Larva & Pupa Syndrome)-  talks about the expensive medical education, and the issues students face in medical college.

    Part Two (Hope & Fears) talks about the beginning of doctors’ professional journey, the disease demons they face while dealing with critical patients, dilemmas of doctors and patients near death situations.

    Part Three (Medical Lawsuits) is about how doctors are always working under the threat of medico-legal lawsuits.

        While stories are fictional, the scenarios and the problems in them are very real — things that he faced or saw his colleagues facing.

     Medical profession has become victim of mistrust generation and blame culture. Everyone keeps harping about the few black sheep in the community, while larger good work of doctors is not highlighted enough.

    The stories span from Dr Anand’s initial days in the emergency room and capture his struggles in complex medico-legal scenarios over the next four decades. This book is an effort to bring back focus on the treatment of the patient as opposed to the mistrust, legal frameworks and policies surrounding the healthcare practice.

           The book is self-published, available worldwide on Kindle Amazon, Apple, Barnes & Noble, Tolino, Kobo, Scibd, BorrowBox, Baker & Taylor , Vivilo, Overdrive  etc.

Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

     REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

     21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

     Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

 Side Effects-Implementing Medical-Consumer-Protection-Act in Haste


        Medical consumer protection act was implemented in 1995. Patients defined as consumers and hence doctors converted to service providers in lieu of some money.  Consequently the changed definitions altered the doctor-patient relationship in an irreversible way. Instead of the earlier congenial relationship, now-a day’s doctors and patients are fighting in courts, whereas most of aspects of the law still remain grey after 26 years of implementation. Here in this case even courts differ in the interpretation (among themselves) of the law after more than two decades of its implementation.

        The doctors are supposed to treat, provide relief and save lives are the most affected, it is needless to say that the way of treating patients has been altered like never before. Medical lawsuits and complaints (right or wrong) are breaking medical professionals from within, not to mention the toll it takes on someone’s confidence and belief, which takes a lifetime to build.

   The reality is that neither doctors, nor patients were ready for such a legal relationship, and the system was not robust enough for such a change.  To work with weak infrastructure, non-uniform medical education along with legal threats pushed doctors into a shell and forced defensive practice.  It caused erosion of doctor-patient relationship and escalated cost of care.

   Medical business, insurance and legal industry made full use of the opportunity to have the benefits of changed doctor-patient relationship.  Doctors were used as scapegoats for poor infrastructure by administrators and further exploited by law industry.

   Justice eluded doctors at all stages.

      It is discouraging for medical professionals to note that courts are still clarifying the law even after 26 years of its implementation.  What is more disheartening that many more aspects about the medical-consumer protection act are either remain  unclear and create difficulty for doctors.  To differentiate medical mistakes, poor prognosis from negligence is a very fine line and difficult to judge. Therefore medical profession has  become  a subject to blackmail by patients, lawyers and sitting ducks for punishments. The consequent insecurity among doctors, practice of defensive medicine, enhanced costs, excessive documentation and the distraction from the primary point of intention (treatment)  are few of the  side effects, which will  definitely be passed on to the patients inadvertently.  After all doctors have to save themselves as well.

 Consequently being consumer may be overall a loss making deal for the patients.

     The point to ponder is that courts themselves differ on interpretation of law even after 26 years of its implementation.  

The Supreme Court has reiterated that service rendered by medical officers on behalf of a Hospital, free of cost, would not fall within the ambit of  medical consumer protection act.

https://www.livelaw.in/top-stories/consumer-case-not-maintainable-over-medical-services-given-free-of-charge-doctor-salary-hospital-supreme-court-187291

     Advantages-Disadvantage of being a doctor

     25 factors- why health care is expensive

     REEL Heroes Vs Real Heroes

     21 occupational risks to doctors and nurses

     Covid paradox: salary cut for doctors other paid at home

   Medical-Consumer protection Act- Pros and Cons

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