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Covid war- unhappy soldiers: says Supreme court


 

In present era, these are toughest times for health care staff and hospitals as well.  Warriors on the front lines are doctors and nurses, whereas hospitals are grappling with financial constraints.  What should have been most   desirable at this crucial time, was the   encouragement and psychological support to these warriors.  Administrators were supposed to give some moral boosting and financial support or at least, the rightful, so that health staff  should work willingly and inspire next generation for future catastrophe like this.  Instead of armchair preaching to health care staff, there should have been robust  rules and guidelines to protect health care staff and health systems as doctors and nurses are working under tremendous psychological pressure.

But the desired did not happen, as the chaotic management due to economical compulsions or just trying to be projected as an outstanding administrator turned out to be a real possibility rather than exception.

Moral and legal compulsions thus caused  immense pressure on health care workers  and  they became an  easy  subject  to moral and legal blackmail.  The  pressure to perform their duties in sub-optimal and below par conditions became a new norm.  

Every day when doctors and nurses, while going to work have this thought in mind. But still they continue to work amid their own tensions, worries about families.

The non-payment of salaries, disrespect to health care staff and being made to work in below par conditions, without PPE’s at some places has caused tremendous discouragement to the medical profession.

 

In war, you don’t make soldiers unhappy, says SC on non-payment of salaries to doctors

The courts should not be involved in the issue of non-payment of salary to health care workers and government should settle the issue, it said.

NEW DELHI: “In war, you do not make soldiers unhappy. Travel extra mile and channel some extra money to address their grievances,” the Supreme Court said on Friday taking serious note of non-payment of salary and lack of proper accommodation to doctors engaged in fight against Covid-19.

The courts should not be involved in the issue of non-payment of salary to health care workers and government should settle the issue, it said.

The top court was hearing a plea by a doctor, who alleged that front line healthcare workers engaged in fight against Covid-19 are not being paid salaries or their salaries are being cut or delayed.

The doctor also questioned the Centre’s new SOP making their 14-day quarantine non-mandatory.

“In war, you do not make soldiers unhappy. Travel extra mile and channel some extra money to address grievances. Country cannot afford to have dissatisfied soldiers in this war which is being fought against Corona,” said a bench of Justices Ashok Bhushan, S K Kaul and MR Shah.

Solicitor General Tushar Mehta, appearing for the Centre, said that if there are better suggestions coming forward, they can be accommodated.

The bench said that there are reports coming that many areas doctors are not being paid.

“We saw report that doctors went on strike. In Delhi, some doctors have not been paid for past three months. These are concerns that should have been taken care off. It should not require court intervention.”

The bench further said, “You (Centre) need to do more. Must make sure their concerns are addressed”.

The bench posted the matter for further hearing next week.

On June 4, the Centre had told the top court that a “large number” of make-shift hospitals will have to be built in the near future to accommodate the constant rise in the number of newly infected people.

The Centre also contended that though hospitals are responsible for implementing the Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) activities, the final responsibility lies with the health care workers to protect themselves from COVID-19.

It further said mandatory quarantine for 14 days after the duty of healthcare workers of 7/14 days is “not justified and warranted”.

“It is most respectfully submitted that number of cases of COVID-19 are constantly increasing and at some point of time in near future, apart from existing hospitals, large number of temporary make-shift hospitals will have to be created in order to accommodate COVID-19 patients requiring admission, medical care and treatment,” the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare said in an affidavit.

The affidavit was filed on a plea by Arushi Jain who questioned the Centre’s new Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of May 15 for front line COVID-19 healthcare workers by which it ended the 14-day mandatory quarantine for them.

The ministry in its reply affidavit had said healthcare workers (HCW) are properly protected by Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) in workplace settings and carry no additional risk to their families or children.

It had said grievances raised by the petitioner alleging infirmities in the May 15 guidelines of the health ministry are completely presumptuous, vacuous, ill-founded and sans any empirical or medical evidence.

Justifying its advisory and SOPs, the health ministry said it is a step in the right direction and that the guidelines emphasise the role of taking adequate preventive measures by all health care workers in the hospital setting against the likelihood of contracting infection at their work place.

On April 8, the apex court had observed that the doctors and medical staff are the “first line of defence of the country” in the battle against COVID-19 pandemic, and directed the Centre to ensure that appropriate PPEs are made available to them for treating coronavirus patients.

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Enslavement of doctor and nurses

 

21 occupational risk to doctor and nurses

 

Immunity business in corona times


About the medicines and substances, that  are consumed by masses under a false hope of immunity enhancement. Every substance, which claims to alter human physiological functions should undergo strict international neutral trials and not allowed to be sold by mere advertisements.

Tremendous misguidance is propagated by giving a false hope to people of doing some treatment.

Every day we read in media the various pronouncements claiming to enhance the immunity especially in the  days of Covid-19. It automatically implied  or interpreted that the said product will save  the people from Corona and hence a brisk business starts. No one has studied the real effectiveness, correct  doses or side effects of preparation in real sense.

 

A myth, that any plant extracted drug is useful, free of side effects, is a belief ingrained deep in the minds of people. Such unscrupulous  advice is followed blindly without even verifying the authenticity of the source. A hope of miracle is flashed to patients who perceive  a “no hope” by scientific medicine, are an  easy prey for such fraudsters.

Another major problem  is that medicines and syrups distributed in such manner often  are without name of drug, contents and doses. It is not uncommon to get lethal substances like steroids, hormones and heavy metals in dangerous doses.   Such acts  are  real crime to society, done with an intention to cheat rather than treating them.

Any one selling  medicines in name of alternative medicines, food supplements or medical advice of any kind, has to be registered with a council, for those particular medicines. advertisement of such drugs or products should be on some scientific basis and neutral trials.

 

Most of these are not validated at all by international or national authorities, not even considered as drugs. No impartial, neutral trials conducted about effects, side effects or toxicity. Mere media or social media words, which are paid, are considered as  Gospel  Truth  and substances are consumed by masses under a false hope of immunity enhancement. Most of them marketed as herbal or alternate medicines, which are advertised as harmless but beneficial. They are sold by propagated words of benefit  and advertisements rather than a solid proof.

Slowly these medicines become part of conventional wisdom rather than  considered as drugs and chemicals or heavy metals.  In reality, being a settled medical science issue, it remains a fake news at the basis.

There is no dearth of quacks, who sell unknown and unlabelled substances, merely  to earn money, but the dangers of such products are high and unassuming consumers remain oblivious to side effects.

   Any substance is considered effective only after rigorous testing through randomised clinical trials  and additional laboratory analyses.  The substances that are merely propagated on social media or claims of company or advised by quacks will not help and merely remain as part of immunity business. They provide a false hope and thereby earn money  because of fear in the minds of masses.

Times of India carries a report about the brisk business being done, while people are looking at ways to enhance their immunity.

Any substance which claims to alter the physiology of a person or patient, cannot be consumed  without undergoing rigorous, neutral and international  safety trials. If found to be good, all  homo sapiens in the world should be benefitted. If not,   let the gullible masses not be misguided and trapped into a false hope. There has to be a strict Government  control about the products to be consumed, which claim to alter human physiology.

Balancing immunity in Corona times

 

Who will treat people in next Pandemic?


Pandemic has unmasked the real risk to doctor and nurses. The occupational risk of being among the diseases, that was known to them, has been unveiled to everyone. That should have generated respect for health workers in a civilized society. What was actually desirable, was the encouragement and psychological support to these warriors. Good administrators were supposed to give some moral boosting and financial support, so that health staff should work willingly and inspire next generation for future catastrophe like this. Instead of armchair preaching to health care staff, there should have been robust rules and guidelines to protect health care staff and health systems as doctors and nurses are working under tremendous psychological pressure.

More importantly, among this chaotic situation, whether rules are being followed or not, how administrators are doing can be at the most a guess work, rather than following a uniform system. The possibility of chaotic management due to economical compulsions or just trying to be projected as an outstanding administrator may be a real possibility rather than exception.

Health care workers can be easily subjected to moral and legal blackmail or pressure to perform their duties in sub-optimal and below par conditions. They can be subject to moral, legal, financial or even pressure of physical assaults. Such pressures can be tremendous in health sector because of financial complexities.

Is the payment made to them is commensurate to the risk to their life and work they do? Who will pay them and how much in case harm or death of health care worker, every one refrains to discuss?

Are they given the real respect, what they deserve and are worthy of?

Every day when doctors and nurses, while going to work have this thought in mind. But still they continue to work amid their own tensions, worries about families. While it is clear to them that administrators refrain to discuss the issues, which matter to them the most.

Times of India carries a report that the interns will be punished, if they become positivefor Covid, while doing duties. Although possibly the circular is withdrawn, but it reflects the deep seated and hidden mental frame of administrators, about the intention, how they wish to behave with doctors. Why such punishments are not for other Government functionaries or officials or even public, who test positive. It is just an example, but there are numerous examples of such kind.

MUMBAI: The department of community medicine at KEM Hospital issued a circular on Thursday asking interns to give a written explanation on how they had been exposed to the Covid-19 infection, after an increasing number of interns went into quarantine. It further said they will be liable to repeat their internship for the duration period of the quarantine if there was any negligence in following “Covid-19 discipline”. The circular was withdrawn within a few hours, after it faced criticism from many. Doctors and students termed the circular “insensitive” and “unwarranted” during a pandemic. Dr Sagar Mundada, psychiatrist and former president of Maharashtra Association of Resident Doctors, called the circular insensitive. “It is a pandemic. Why medical interns should be asked about the source of the infection?” An intern said some of them have been working for three months without stipend while their duty hours have been increased to 12. They collect swabs, blood and insert IV. 6/6/2020 Mumbai: KEM questions interns over quarantine, then backs off – dean Hemant Deshmukh said he had not signed the circular and it will not be implemented. Dr Gajanan Velhal, who signed it, said it was misunderstood. “No such action will be taken against any interns,” he said. Rajvi Bheda, a representative of the Association of State Medical Interns at KEM, said it seemed to be an attempt to ensure interns stay safe. “But it was unfair to the interns too, as it is difficult to identify the source of infection.

As Corona has unmasked the real risk to health workers and society has dealt with heath workers shabbily. Next younger generation of aspiring doctors, who is a witness to the cruelty shown towards health staff, may be forced to think about their decisions to become health workers. Possibly the administrators need to ponder now, who will treat people in next pandemic.

Corona unmasks the risk to doctor and nurses, administrators refrain

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Plight of nurse in Covid ward

Pros-Cons of Covid testing at admission in hospitals


 

Try not to find a hidden explosive can be a disaster. Testing after it has exploded, is of limited benefit.

Going by practical thought, testing for COVID-19 should be a non-issue, as  Up to 44% of the infection may be transmitted by pre-symptomatic patients or asymptomatic patients.

Advantages of   Covid testing at admission in hospitals   

  1. Source to other patients; Any patient  admitted with medical diseases or requiring surgery, if  Covid status  is not tested, the patient  will be mixed with others. Any one patient having Covid infection will act as a source for other patients and health workers.
  2. Further progress of Covid-19 will be influenced by the incidence of infection in the population. The true numbers of spread will be the  key to informed decision making therefore will influence the  trends. Any  orders or intention to restrict testing  defies logic. Inconsistent strategies will result in projecting an incomplete  picture of the transmission.
  3. Difficult to decide on history; It is impossible  to identify all COVID-19 patients based on history alone. One such patient could infect several healthcare workers and can significantly impact hospital services. Thus, the implications of missing a single COVID-19 patient can be enormous, in a hospital.
  4. Clear history not available; Sometimes patients are not always clear  about their history of contact or symptoms because of  many reasons. Doctors also sometimes may not be able to elicit the correct history.
  5. Generation of Data;Testing  at the hospital admission  increases   overall testing figures. It screens a population at risk of infection and source. Undertaking contact tracing and breaking the chain of transmission is helpful.  For same reasons, doctors routinely carry out testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C preoperatively for all patients.  It is just another viral test.
  6. Hospitals turning into hotspots and risk to health workers; Hospitals are the only place, holding too many sick people. Chances of harbouring Covid, or catching infections are very high in hospitals. They can actually turn into hotspots, if testing is restricted in the hospitals. Liberal testing is one of the methods to contain infection in hospitals, so doctors can detect and segregate the source.

Disadvantages 0f Covid  testing at admission

There are some equally reasonable concerns about mandatory testing of COVID-19.

  1. First is the cost and the delay in patient management.

 

  1.    Stigmatisation if one tests positive and being refused treatment is a major fear for the patient.
  2. Universal safety precautions are always followed across all hospital surgeries, irrespective of the test result.

There are many reasons for and some against COVID-19 testing of all admitted patients. Doctors will strive to strike the balance between protecting patients and protecting  the healthcare system and workers. While treating any  patient without  delay, a more rational and practical set of comprehensive guideline is needed  for non-urgent or elective admissions from  our national and international organizations to enable health care systems  to practice medicine safely.

Otherwise every one may be at risk including  patients, health care  workers and doctors.

Inconsistent strategies of testing Covid will undermine decision making  (Times of India)

Moral burden of poor quality PPE’s on doctor and nurses#Covid time


Medical industry has found an opportunity to do a brisk business. The norms of PPE are not well defined, from the end user’s comfort,  that is doctor and nurses. Any material is that is converted into PPE and dumped on health workers, adding enormously on their plight.  A moral burden to do their  work in every situation, is becoming difficult to carry on, while the opportunist in medical industry make merry. A sin, which  may look nonpunishable in current era, but should not be forgiven in a civilized society.

Possibly working as a doctor and nurse is going to be most difficult  profession. Working in life and death situations, excessive  documentation, unrealistic expectations from patients and administrators alike, working  under legal compulsions, prone to punishments and complaints on simple human errors,  poorly paid  and facing verbal and physical assaults. Above all despite doing all this, respect and gratitude is scant for the life savers in present era. Adding to all above issues, another problem has been added, the poor quality of PPE, which makes life of saviours a hell.

Times of India  publishes a report on the same, that brings out the plight of doctor and nurses.

‘Some PPEs feel like we’re wearing plastic rice bags  from. Trussed up inside a plastic bag in the summer heat with sweat pouring down the body but afraid to drink water as it is impossible to take a loo break. This is how a nurse described the experience of wearing a personal protective equipment (PPE) suit.

While there is no dearth of PPE any more, doctors and nurses say the quality is such that it’s like wearing a plastic bag. Doctors say hospitals are besieged by companies offering PPE kits. “The quality of most of what is offered is horrible. The fabric of many is like chawal ka thaila (RICE BAG). There is zero breathability and so health workers find it impossible to wear it for long. That reluctance could endanger them,” said a senior doctor. The WHO guidelines on PPE strike a balance between protection against infection and allowing health workers “ease, dexterity, comfort and minimal heat-associated stress”. However, the guidelines framed by the ministries of health and textiles only focus on the need to prevent blood or fluid penetration but have nothing about breathability. So, manufacturers focus on thickness of the plastic rather than the wearer’s comfort. “In the initial rush to overcome the shortage of PPE, it is understandable that the ministry did not think of all aspects. But it is unacceptable to allow people to use this opportunity to make money by supplying abysmal quality PPE and endangering the  lives of health workers.

The government should immediately issue clear-cut guidelines on quality of fabric and stitching and weed out the fake manufacturers cashing in on the sudden demand for PPE,” said a doctor in a Covid hospital. According to a manufacturer of protective wear, cheap plastic laminated fabric costs just Rs 150-200 per kilo. “So even with the cost of stitching, a poor quality PPE suit would cost only Rs 100- 200 to make but is sold for Rs 500-800. With such huge margins, getting even one small order for 10,000 PPE suits would mean a profit of at least Rs 30 lakh. This is why there is a such a huge rush of people getting into PPE making,” he explained Eight labs identified by the textile ministry to do quality checks on PPE have so far issued over 900 Unique Certification Codes (UCC), mandatory for PPE sellers, especially to land government contracts.

The government says there are 600 companies manufacturing 4.5 lakh PPE suits per day. Many with the UCC have little or no experience in making protective wear. They include chemists, lingerie and footwear manufacturers, tent or tarpaulin makers, wholesale traders of drugs, small-time pharma companies, and even a food company. “Anyone who has a garage to store the stuff can buy some fabric and organize some tailors to copy a PPE suit,” said an industry insider. “One PPE lot supplied to us had electrical insulation tapes used to seal the seams. Obviously, they started coming off when we moved around,” said a doctor in a private hospital. Another doctor in a government Covid hospital pointed out that the government only tested the coverall, but other components like face shields or goggles that came with it were substandard. Almost all hospitals seem to have PPE horror stories to narrate. The government is at pains to reiterate that its certification is only for the coverall and that only a Synthetic Blood Penetration Test (SBPT) has been conducted.

Every UCC states that the certificate is based solely on the sample submitted by the applicant. It goes on to state: “The procurement agency is advised to conduct prior due diligence before placement of supply agreement…including periodical sample tests.

 

25 factors for expensive medical treatment

Altruistic professions are not cherished in present era

21 occupational risk to doctor and nurses

Being doctor or nurse- a disadvantage in present era

plight of nurse who died reusing PPE’s

 

Plight of a Covid-Nurse; who died Reusing PPE


The Covid 19 does not differentiate whether the health worker, who is at war  with the  virus,  is  in a government sector or private sector. Whether it is in Europe, USA or Asia,  although conditions of Covid warriors may differ. Their protective armour may differ from place to place, even hospital to hospital. But the enemy virus remains ruthless and attacks, whenever on slight opportunity.  Although there are plethora of rule and regulations dealing with health care workers and  many times health workers themselves do not know or aware about, what to do in a given situation?

But more importantly, among this chaotic situation, whether rules are being followed or not, how administrators or managers are doing can be any one’s guess rather than an  assumption that of  following a uniform  system. The possibility of chaotic and inept  management due to economical or intentional compulsions  may be a real possibility often rather than exception.

Health care workers may be subjected to moral and legal blackmail or pressure to perform their duties in sub-optimal conditions. Such pressures can be tremendous in private sector because of financial complexities.

Is the payment made to doctors and nurses is commensurate to the risk to their life and work they do? Who will pay them and how much in case harm occurs to saviors   themselves,  administrators refrains to discuss.

 

Nurse’s death: Colleagues say had to wear used PPEs

A senior nurse at   the Hospital claimed, “While the doctors were given fresh PPE, the nurses were asked to reuse PPE. If we raised objections, we were told that since this is not a designated Covid-19 hospital, we are at little risk, and can reuse PPE.”

 

A day after a 46-year-old nurse at a private hospital in Delhi succumbed to Covid-19, her colleagues have alleged that the hospital made nurses “reuse personal protective equipment (PPE), including gloves and masks”.

On Sunday afternoon, a nurse at the  Hospital, was admitted and  died at Delhi’s Safdarjung Hospital, where she was admitted on May 21. She is the first nurse to have died of the virus in Delhi.

The Indian Express spoke to 10 nursing staff at the hospital, where she worked as well as nurse’s son, and all of them spoke about PPEs being reused during duty.

A senior nurse at the Hospital claimed, “While the doctors were given fresh PPE, the nurses were asked to reuse PPE. If we raised objections, we were told that since this is not a designated Covid-19 hospital, we are at little risk, and can reuse PPE.”

The Indian Express spoke to the owner of the hospital, who denied the allegations and said that adequate PPE and hand sanitizers were being provided to all employees. “I have not received a single complaint from any staffer. If there is a single discrepancy, I will investigate and take strict action,” he said.

A senior nurse, who said she was close to the nurse, alleged that on her last day at the  Hospital a week ago,  she  got into an argument with the nursing in-charge about “not getting fresh PPE and masks”. Another senior nurse who worked in the ICU with her  confirmed this.

Her friend and colleague claimed that she was working until May 18, when she did a morning shift and refused to do the night shift as she was feeling sick. “At night, she had fever, a bad throat and body ache, so we advised her to rest. On May 19, too, she was sick, and on May 21, she had difficulty breathing, so she was taken to Safdarjung Hospital,” said the nurse.

She died on the afternoon of May 24.

Her son said “My mother’s condition deteriorated so rapidly… I couldn’t understand how to get here sooner. Over a week ago, she mentioned that the hospital was making her reuse PPE and charging money for masks. I got agitated and told her to just stay at home, but she didn’t listen to me. She continued working, and now she is dead.”

 

25 factors for expensive medical treatment

Altruistic professions are not cherished in present era

21 occupational risk to doctor and nurses

Being doctor or nurse- a disadvantage in present era

 

Balancing Immunity in Corona Times


Any substance is considered effective only after rigorous testing through randomised clinical trials with Covid-19 patients, and additional laboratory analyses.  The substances that are merely propagated on social media or claims of company or advised by quacks will not help and merely remain as part of immunity business. They provide a false hope and thereby earn money  because of fear in the minds of masses.

  As there is no definite treatment or prevention against Covid-19, people need to depend upon their own body resistance and preventive strategies. There are advisory in respected papers about the same in The Hindustan times and The Wall Street Journal, that may be helpful.

 

 

Scientists bust myths about ‘immunity-boosting’ substances in fighting Covid-19

Indian scientists on Thursday released a statement against the promotion of “immunity-boosting substances” to protect oneself from being infected with the novel coronavirus. Citing lack of scientific evidence, scientists said consuming mustard oil or tea, homaeopathic solutions or ayurvedic preparations, or modern medicines like hydroxychloroquine that are claimed to provide either immunity or cure “do not provide any known and/or validated protection against Covid-19”.

Additionally, drinking cow urine, wearing talismans, exposure to ultraviolet light or injecting disinfectants are harmful to the human body, while excess consumption of supplements such as zinc or datura seeds can prove to be fatal.

Aniket Sule, astrophysicist at Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education and one of the signatories, said, “Since the beginning of Covid-19 epidemic, several statements have propagated ‘immunity-boosting’ substances. Some assertions were also supported by a few government functionaries at the Centre and in various states; and we, therefore, wanted to place scientific facts in the public domain.”

The most severe cases of Covid-19 are made worse by an overreaction of the immune system. So trying to boost general immunity using untested methods may be risky.”

Facts (and Myths) About Boosting Your Immune System

It’s crucial to stay healthy as the threat of coronavirus spreads. Here are the best strategies.

As the new coronavirus continues to spread across the country, having an optimally functioning immune system is more important than ever.

Medical professionals say it is important not to rush to buy supplements and vitamins that promise to enhance your immune system; there isn’t much evidence that such products do any good. Instead, they say, stick with the more mundane, but proven, approaches:

  • Keep your stress levels down.It’s a bit of a vicious cycle, of course: The more you stress about the virus, the more likely you are to suffer from it. “Stress can certainly hurt your immune system,” says Morgan Katz, an assistant professor of infectious diseases at Johns Hopkins University. “Do not panic, try to minimize stress.”

Andrew Diamond, chief medical officer of One Medical, a nationwide network of primary-care providers, says the stress hormone cortisol turns off cells in your immune system. He recommends engaging in activities that people find relaxing, such as meditation.

  • Exercise.Low- and moderate-intensity exercise naturally lowers cortisol levels and helps with immune-system function, says Dr. Diamond. One Medical recommends 30 to 60 minutes of exercise a day. If you’re apprehensive about germs in the gym, walk or run outside.

But it is important not to go overboard. A recent study found high-performance athletes have an increased risk of infection, says Elizabeth Bradley, medical director of the Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Functional Medicine. “Exercise helps boost the immune system, but we have to be careful not to overexercise because it can weaken your immune system,” she says.

  • Get adequate sleep.For adults, that means getting seven to eight hours of sleep a night. Children should get more, depending on their age.
  • Make sure your vaccines are up-to-date, especially the flu vaccine.
  • Eat plenty of plain yogurt every day.“It’s really an easy way to boost your probiotics and help support your microbiome,” Dr. Katz says. “It helps to support the good bacteria that live in your body, which help to fight bad bacteria or viruses.”

Dr. Katz also suggests avoiding antibiotics unless you must take them because they deplete the good bacteria in the system, leaving you more vulnerable to other infections.

Other foods that can help support the microbiome include garlic, onion, ginger, sauerkraut and fermented foods, says Dr. Bradley.

 Watch your diet. Stick to a healthful, balanced diet filled with lots of colorful fruits and vegetables to ensure you’re getting enough zinc and vitamin D and other important vitamins and minerals. Most experts say you should be able to get enough of these vitamins and minerals through your diet, and extra supplementation isn’t necessary. But because vitamin D deficiency is relatively common, experts do recommend supplementation if levels are low.

Dr. Bradley recommends eating lots of dark green, leafy vegetables and berries, as well as nuts and seeds, and to minimize foods with sugar and trans fats, which aren’t as nutrient-dense.

Your immune system needs fuel, so avoid ultralow-carbohydrate diets, experts say. In addition, drink lots of water and reduce alcohol consumption, which can disrupt your sleep.

  • Stop smoking or vaping.Smokers and those with respiratory disease have a higher rate of serious illness and complications from coronavirus. “Anything that is challenging to your lungs is going to work in the wrong direction,” says Dr. Diamond.

 

 

 

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