The practice of medicine by trained professionals has been ever evolving in its approach to illness and disease, from ancient times to the present.
Early medical traditions evolved in Babylon, China, Egypt, and India. The Greeks pioneered the art of medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath, still taken by doctors up to today, was written in Greece in the 5th century BCE. In the medieval age, advances in surgical practices were made and systematized in Rogerius’s, The Practice of Surgery. Systematic training of physicians was started in universities around the years 1220 in Italy. During the Renaissance, significant advances were made with invention of microscope and better understanding of anatomy. The germ theory of disease in the 19th century led to cures for many infectious diseases. Military doctors advanced the methods of trauma treatment and surgery. Systematic sanitary measures and public health measures made significant improvement . Advanced research centers opened in the early 20th century, often connected with major hospitals. Discovery of antibiotics was major invention in the mid-20th century.. These advancements, along with developments in chemistry, genetics, and lab technology such as the X-ray, was recognized as modern medicine. Medicine was heavily professionalized in the 20th century, and new careers opened to women as nurses (from the 1870s).